The period of time in a person's life when they are developing into an adult


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591

Infrastructure

The basic systems and services, such as transport and power supplies, that a country or organization uses in order to work effectively

592

Issue

Subject or problem which people are thinking and talking about

Eg: Don't worry about who will do it - that's just a side issue (= not the main problem).



593

Megacity




594

Obstacle

Something that blocks you so that movement, going forward or action are prevented or made more difficult

Eg: The biggest obstacle in our way was a tree trunk in the road.



595

Overpopulation

Overpopulation is one of the country's most pressing social problems.

596

Poverty

The condition of being extremely poor

Eg: Two million people in the city live in abject (= very great) poverty.



597

Resolution

An official decision that is made after a group or organization have voted

598

Setback


Something that happens which delays or prevents a process from advancing

Eg: There has been a slight setback in our plans.



599

Slum

  1. A very poor and crowded area, especially of a city

  2. Very untidy or dirty place

600

Solution

The answer to a problem

Eg: There's no easy solution to this problem.



601

Tolerance

Willingness to accept behaviour and beliefs which are different from your own, although you might not agree with or approve of them

602

Traffic

The amount of vehicles moving along roads, or the amount of aircraft, trains or ships moving along a route

603

Urbanization

The process by which more and more people leave the countryside to live in cities

604

Adequate

Enough or satisfactory for a particular purpose

Eg: I didn't have adequate time to prepare.



605

Basic

Providing the base or starting point from to increase or become successful and produce a lot of money very quicklywhich something can develop; simple and not complicated

606

Booming

To increase or become successful and produce a lot of money very quickly

607

Crowded

If a place is crowded, it is full of people

Eg: By ten o'clock the bar was crowded.



608

Decent

Socially acceptable or good

609

One -sided

  1. If a competition is one-sided, one team or player is much better than the other

  2. Only considering one opinion in an argument in a way that is unfair

610

Long-sighted

Able to see things which are far away but not things which are near you

611

Overpriced

Too expensive

Eg: These shoes are very nice, but they're terribly overpriced.



612

Pressing

Urgent or needing to be dealt with immediately

Eg: The most pressing question is what do we do next?



613

Overwork

To (cause someone to) work too much

614

Staggering

]to walk or move with difficulty as if you are going to fall

615

Short-sighted

Describes someone who can only clearly see objects that are close to them

616

Address

The number of the house, name of the road and town where a person lives or works and where letters can be sent

617

Adjust

To change something slightly, especially to make it more correct, effective, or suitable

Eg: If the chair is too high you can adjust it to suit you.



618

Aggravate

To make a bad situation worse

619

Cause

The reason why something, especially something bad, happens

620

Compete

To try to be more successful than someone or something else

Eg: It's difficult for a small supermarket to compete against/with the big supermarkets.



621

Deal with




622

Deteriorate

To become worse

623

Enhance

To improve the quality, amount or strength of something

Eg: These scandals will not enhance the organization's reputation.



624

Exacerbate

To make something which is already bad worse

Eg: This attack will exacerbate the already tense relations between the two communities.



625

Face

1. [C]the front of the head, where the eyes, nose and mouth are

626

Flourish

To grow or develop successfully

Eg: My tomatoes are flourishing this summer - it must be the warm weather.



627

Overcome

To defeat or succeed in controlling or dealing with something

628

Worsen

To become worse or to make something become worse

629

Transform

To change completely the appearance or character of something or someone, especially so that they are improved

630

Tackle

To try to deal with something or someone

Eg: I tackled him about his careless work.



631

Remedy a situation




632

Regulate

To control something, especially by making it work in a particular way

Eg: You can regulate the temperature in the house by adjusting the thermostat.



633

Raise

To lift something to a higher position

634

Present

Something which you are given, without asking for it, on a special occasion, especially to show friendship, or to say thank you

635

Modify

To change something such as a plan, opinion, law or way of behaviour slightly, usually to improve it or make it more acceptable

636

Linger

To take a long time to leave or disappear

Eg: The smell from the fire still lingered days later



637

Include

To contain something as a part of something else, or to make something part of something else

638

Acid rain

Rain which contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil

639

Biodiversity

The number and types of plant and animal species that exist in a particular environmental area or in the world generally

640

Contamination

The water supply is being tested for contamination (= the presence of unwanted or dangerous

641

Deforestation

The cutting down of trees in a large area; the destruction of forests by people

Eg: Deforestation is destroying large areas of tropical rain forest.



642

Disposal

When you get rid of something, especially by throwing it away

643

Drought

A long period when there is little or no rain

Eg: This year (a) severe drought has ruined the crops.



644

Ecosystem

All the living things in an area and the way they affect each other and the environment

645

Emission

When gas, heat, light, etc. Is sent out

Eg: The Green Party have called for a substantial reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases by the UK.



646

Environment

The air, water and land in or on which people, animals and plants live

647

Erosion

Soil/coastal erosion

648

Exhaust

To make someone extremely tired

649

Fertilize

. To spread a natural or chemical substance on land or plants, in order to make the plants grow well

650

Food chain

A series of living things which are connected because each group of things eats the group below it in the series

651

Fumes

Strong, unpleasant and sometimes dangerous gas or smoke

652

Greenhouse gases

A gas which causes the greenhouse effect, especially carbon dioxide

653

Pollutant

A substance that pollutes

Eg: Sulphur dioxide is one of several pollutants that are released into the atmosphere by coal-fired power stations.



654

Waste

Unnecessary or wrong use of money, substances, time, energy, abilities, etc

Eg: That meeting achieved absolutely nothing - it was a complete waste of time.



655

Threat

A suggestion that something unpleasant or violent will happen, especially if a particular action or order is not followed

656

Strain

A force or influence that stretches, pulls or puts pressure on something, sometimes causing damage

657

Refuse

To say that you will not do or accept something

Eg: He asked me to give him another loan, but I refused.



658

Process

A series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result

659

Chronic

(especially of a disease or something bad) continuing for a long time

660

Inevitable

Certain to happen and unable to be avoided or prevented

661

Inexorable

Continuing without any possibility of being stopped

Eg: the inexorable progress of science



662

Dump

To put down or drop something in a careless way

663

Confront

To face, meet or deal with a difficult situation or person

664

Worthwhile

Useful, important or good enough to be a suitable reward for the money or time spent or the effort made

665

Vital

Necessary for the success or continued existence of something; extremely important

666

Viable

Able to work as intended or able to succeed

667

Useless

Of no use; not working or not achieving what is needed

Eg: Without fuel, the vehicles will become useless for moving supplies.



668

Unprecedented

Never having happened or existed in the past

669

Unlikely

Not likely

Eg: He seems an unlikely-looking policeman (= He is not what I expect a policeman to look like).



670

Unattainable

Not able to be achieved

671

Taxing

Difficult or needing a lot of thought or effort

672

Sustainable


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