The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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Careers

  • Concordat of 1801

    • French keeps the lands taken
    • France appoints clergy
    • Catholic worship allowed in public
    • Toleration given to Protestants and Jews


    Bank of France

    • Bank of France

    • Economic Reforms

    • Educational Reforms

      • Preparation for government service & professional occupations
    • Police state repressed liberty, subverted Republicanism and restored Absolutism under Napoleon



    NAPOLEONIC WARS

    • Crowned himself emperor

    • The Grand Empire

    • Battle of Trafalgar

    • Battle of Austerlitz

    • Confederation of the Rhine

    • The Continental System

    • The Peninsular War

    • The Russian Campaign

    • Frankfurt Proposals

    • Quadruple Alliance

    • Charter of 1814

    • Hundred Days

    • Battle of Waterloo



    CONGRESS OF VIENNA

    • Met to redraw the territorial lines and restore the social and political order of the ancien regime (Conservatives)

    • Prince Metternich

    • Czar Alexander I

      • Poland
      • Holy Alliance
    • Legitimacy

      • Restore the monarchs
    • Compensation

      • England = Naval bases
      • Austria = Italian provinces
      • Russia = Poland
      • Prussia = Rhineland
      • Sweden = Norway


    Balance of Power

    • Balance of Power

      • No one power could cause a general war
      • Encircle France
      • Belgium and Netherlands united
      • Switzerland = neutrality
      • Austria in control of German Confederation (Bund)
    • The Concert of Europe (1815-1848)

      • Keep the status quo
    • Congress System (1815-1822)

      • Same as above


    INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION



    ROOTS

    • Machines replaced humans and animal power

    • The Price Revolution stimulated production

    • Capitalism = Surplus of $ by middle class invested

    • Scientific Revolution

    • Cottage Industry = Putting Out System



    ENGLAND

    • Land and Geography

      • Good supply of coal and iron
      • Waterways provided power
    • Agricultural Revolution

      • Enclosure movement created a supply of workers
      • Revolutions in agriculture created more food for more workers
    • Avoided continental wars

    • Bank of England funded industry

    • Colonial Empire



    Stable government with a strong middle class

    • Stable government with a strong middle class

    • Textiles

      • Cotton
      • Mechanized
      • Women workers
    • Coal and Steam Engines

    • Iron created heavy industries

    • British dominated world markets

    • British technology and engineers were best in the world



    INVENTIONS

    • Flying Shuttle = John Kay

    • Spinning Jenny = James Hargreaves

    • Water Frame = Richard Arkwright

    • Steam Engine = James Watt



    TRANSPORATION REVOLUTION

    • Steam Power

    • Raw materials delivered to factories

    • Robert Fulton’s Steamboat

    • George Stephenson “Rocket”

    • 1st important RR in the heart of industrial England

    • Reduced cost of shipping

    • Increased size of market = more demand

    • Increased the demand for urban workers

    • RR used to travel to work



    1815 INDUSTRIALIZED EUROPE

    • Napoleonic Wars delayed industrialization

    • Studied Britain’s mistakes

    • Borrowed British technology, engineers and $

      • Illegal until 1843
      • Belgium, Holland, France and US just after 1815
      • Germany, Austria and Italy by 1850
      • Eastern Europe and Russia after 1885
    • Credit Mobilier helped build RR

    • Zollverein

      • German tarriff on non-German imports
      • Free trade zone among member German states


    Bourgeoisie

    • Bourgeoisie

      • Factory owners
      • Golden Age
    • Protestants and Jews

      • Bankers


    URBANIZATION

    • Birth of factory towns

      • Manchester
      • 3 large cities to 31 in 35 years
    • Cities switched from cultural centers to industrial centers

    • Concentration of the population made conditions worse

    • Families working on the farm were an economic unit but industrialization/urbanization changed that


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