The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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Laissez faire



David Ricardo = Iron Law of Wages

  • David Ricardo = Iron Law of Wages

    • Plentiful workers keep wages low
    • Hurts the working class
    • Fewer worker kids will reduce workers and improve wages
  • Utilitarianism

  • John Stuart Mill

    • Absolute freedom of opinion to be protected from censorship and tyranny of the majority (Voltaire)
    • Argued for Women’s Rights


Thomas Malthus = POPULATION

  • Thomas Malthus = POPULATION

  • Inspired revolutions in 19th century

  • Influenced reform movements in Britain



LIBERAL REFORM IN ENGLAND

  • Britain abandoned the Congress System

  • Reformed the prisons = Auburn system

  • Metropolitan Police Force

  • Test Act Repealed

  • Catholic Emancipation Act (1829)

  • Reform Bill of 1832

    • People demanded a more responsive government because of the cholera epidemic
    • Eliminated under populated rural districts (rotten boroughs)
    • Representation increased in manufacturing districts


Factory Act 1833

  • Factory Act 1833

  • Poor Law 1834 (Poorhouses)

  • Chartists

    • Secret balloting
    • No property qualifications for parliament
    • Salaries for members of parliament
    • Annual elections
    • End to the rotten boroughs
  • Corn Laws Repealed (1846)

  • Victorian Age



FRANCE

  • Charter of 1814

    • Constitutional Monarchy established
    • Louis XVIII
  • White Terror

    • Former revolutionaries murdered by royalists mobs
  • Spanish revolution crushed

    • French troops called in by Concert of Europe to restore the monarch


July Revolution (1830)

  • July Revolution (1830)

    • Charles X July Ordinances were to impose an Absolute Monarchy repealing the Constitution of 1814
    • Radicals in Paris revolt = Charles X abdicates
    • Louis Phillippe named the new king
    • The new Bourgeoisie King let the middle class control the government
    • Started a new wave of revolutions in Europe


ITALY

  • Northern Italy was controlled by the Austrians inspiring liberal discontent

  • Guiseppe Mazzini secret society Young Italy called for unification

  • The Carbonari wanted force o achieve national unification

  • Austrian troops crushed the disorganized rebellion

  • Italian Risorgimento continued Mazzini’s dream



GERMAN STATES

  • Carlsbad decrees restricted freedom

  • University students and professors inspired by the French demanded constitutions

  • Metternich crushed these revolts also



BELGIUM

  • The United Provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch Protestant) were united with Belgium (Catholic)

  • Belgium resisted being ruled by the Dutch

  • They each had a different language, religion and economic life

  • They were merged to control France

  • Students and professors demanded an independent Belgium

  • Netherlands and Belgium separated



RUSSIA

  • Decembrist Uprising (1825)

    • Junior military officers did not want Nicholas to be the next Czar
    • These junior military officers revolt was put down by Nicholas
  • Nicholas I

    • Police state
    • Censorship
    • No representative assemblies
    • Education carefully monitored


Slavophiles

  • Slavophiles

  • Westernizers

    • Expand Russian culture through Industrialization and a Constitutional government


SOCIALISM

  • Wanted to reorganize society to establish cooperation and create a sense of community

  • Count Henri Saint-Simon

    • Industrialization with Science will create a great world
    • Remove the parasites
    • The doers can provide the proper organized society
      • Scientists, Engineers and Industrialists
    • Public Work projects
  • Louis Blanc



Pierre Proudhon



UTOPIAN

  • Charles Fourier

    • Planned Socialist Economy
    • Total emancipation of women

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