The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance

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Robert Owen


  • Marxism developed by Marx and Friedrich Engels

  • The Communist Manifesto

    • Bible of communism
    • Replace Utopian dreams with brutal blueprint for the proletariat
  • Dialectical Materialism

    • All human history determined by economic factors
    • Class struggle between the rich and poor
  • Theory of the Surplus Value

    • Worker receives just a small portion of the true value of his work
    • It is stolen from him by the capitalist
  • Socialism is inevitable

  • Violent Revolution needed to overthrow the elite bourgeoisie


  • Working Men of ALL COUNTRIES UNITE

  • Creation of a classless society

  • Women are doubly oppressed

    • Women are paid low wages and exploited
    • Women are considered 2nd class citizens


  • Revolutions influenced by Nationalism, Liberalism and Romanticism

  • Only Britain and Russia avoided revolutions

  • End to serfdom in Austria and Germany

  • Stimulated the unification impulse in Prussia and Sardinia-Piedmont (Italy)


  • February Revolution

    • Working class and liberals wanted electoral reform
    • King abdicates
    • Louis Blanc wants National Workshops to provide work for the unemployed

10 hour day established

    • 10 hour day established
    • Abolished death penalty
    • Blanc removed leads to July Revolution
  • June Days Revolution

    • Government closes National Workshops
    • Barricades (Les Miserables
    • Revolt crushed by General Cavaignac
  • Election of Louis Napoleon



  • Nationalist and Liberals wanted end to foreign domination (Austrians)

  • Giuseppe Mazzini established Republic protected by Garibaldi

  • Revolt crushed

  • Rural people did not support the revolutions

  • Revolutionaries not united

  • Fear of radicals among the moderates



  • Ethnic minorities sought nationalistic goals

  • Only 25% of the population was German

  • French revolution sparked revolution

  • Louis Kossuth was the Hungarian/Magyar leaders demanded independence

  • Metternich fled as the empire collapsed

  • Austrians and Slavic joined together to defeat the Magyars

  • At the Prague Conference Austroslavism was an attempt to unite the Slavic people as one

  • Austrians army put it down



  • Inspired by the French

  • Frankfurt Parliament

    • Liberal Romantics wanted a constitution for all in the German Bund
    • Unification of Germany was the goal
    • Prussia and Austria defeated Denmark getting Schleswig and Holstein
    • Selected Prussia King to rule
  • Prussian King Frederick IV

    • Divine Right
    • Not accept crown from the gutter

Unification movement collapsed because it was not supported by Austria or Prussia

  • Unification movement collapsed because it was not supported by Austria or Prussia

  • Humiliation of Olmutz

    • Austria demanded Prussia’s obedience to Bund that Austria controlled
    • Prussia drop unification plan, payback is coming



  • Emotion over Reason

  • Glorification of nature emphasizing its beauty and danger

  • Rejected the Enlightenment beliefs

  • Emphasized feelings leading a fight against slavery, poverty and industrial evils

  • Drew upon ideals of the Middle Ages

    • Honor, Faith and Glory

Rousseau = Noble savage

  • Rousseau = Noble savage

  • Kant = God

  • Johann Herder

    • Rebelled against Enlightenment
    • Believed German language was key to unity
    • Volksgeist
  • George Wm. Hegel

    • Dialectic
    • Thesis is challenged by opposing view (Anti-Thesis)
    • Result is a blending of the ideas
    • Continues throughout history
  • Johann Fichte

    • Germans were superior
    • Anti-Semitic


  • Johann Goethe

    • Faust
    • Sells his soul to the devil to experience ….
  • Sir Walter Scott

    • Historical poems and novels
    • Ivanhoe and Knights


  • Goethe

    • Romantic hero is misunderstood and rejected by society
    • Rejected by the girl he loves
    • suicide
  • Victor Hugo

    • Fantastic characters and strange settings
    • Hunchback of Notre Dame
    • Les Miserables

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