The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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Grimm’s Fairy Tales

  • Collection of German folk stories
  • German nationalism and romanticism are tied together


ART

  • Eugene Delacroix

    • Liberty Leading the People
  • JMW Turner

    • The power of nature and man’s attempt to survive its force


MUSIC

  • Beethoven

  • Schubert

  • Chopin (Polish)

  • Verdi

  • Richard Wagner

    • Music-Drama
    • German nationalist
  • Peter Tchaikovsky



2nd INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

  • ROSE

    • R
    • O
    • S
    • E
  • Bessemer Process = Steel

  • Science and Technology become linked together

  • 1890s Germany most powerful industrial nation

  • Workers were attracted to the cities



URBANIZATION

  • 1891 = 50% of the Europe’s population

  • Decline in mortality rates

  • Better nutrition, medical knowledge and housing

  • Number of children dropped

  • Edwin Chadwick = Sanitation

  • Georges von Haussmann redeveloped Paris

    • Wider boulevards
    • Middle class housing in the suburbs
    • Parks and open spaces
  • Electric streetcar

    • Suburbs
    • Subways


Jews in eastern Europe fled to the West to escape persecution

  • Jews in eastern Europe fled to the West to escape persecution

  • Increase in the standard of living

  • Experts with specialized knowledge needed to be professionals and managers

  • Petite Bourgeoisie = Lower middle class

  • Women worked as secretaries, hello girls and nurses



SOCIAL STRUCTURE

  • 15-20% of Western Europe were Middle Class

    • 2% in Eastern Europe
  • The petite bourgeoisie were the lower middle class that included shopkeepers, civil servants, teachers, craftsmen

  • Middle Class were liberals who wanted protection of property in a constitution

  • Middle Class emphasized respectability is based on financial success

  • The middle class saw the family as the foundation of social order and that education, religion and Nationalism are extremely important



Working class totaled about 80% or more of the population

  • Working class totaled about 80% or more of the population

    • Many were peasants or hired hands
  • The labor aristocracy were the skilled workers

  • The unskilled workers or domestic servants were at the bottom of society

  • Children comprised about 14% of the workers



FAMILY

  • Romantic love #1 reason for marriage by 1850

  • Improved standard of living made it possible to marry at a younger age

  • Middle class females were monitored closed (chastity) not so much for the boys

  • The high rate of illegitimacy declined after 1850

  • After 1850 the work of most wives was distinct and separate from their husbands work

    • Husbands were primary wage earners
    • Wives = Cult of Domesticity
    • Wives disliked 2nd class status
  • Parents became more emotionally involved with their children’s lives as mortality rates drop



Mothers breast fed their children

  • Mothers breast fed their children

  • Fewer children abandoned to foundling hospitals

  • Middle Class decreased the # of children

  • Parents of Middle class children wanted to improve the economic and social condition of their children

  • Working class children went to work at adolescences = less emotional ties to family



INTELLECTUAL MOVEMENTS



Belle Epoque

  • Life at the end of the century (fin de siecle)

  • People enjoyed higher wages and lower food prices

  • Increased leisure time with increased money to spend

  • Sports

    • Soccer
    • Rugby
    • Bicycle
    • Auto Races
    • Golf
  • Women took part in bicycling and sports clubs

  • Social Darwinists said sports competition confirmed the superiority of certain races



Cafés and taverns enjoyed increased patronage

  • Cafés and taverns enjoyed increased patronage

  • Department stores grew significantly

  • New inventions changed society

    • Telephone
    • Automobile
    • Gramophone
    • Radio
    • Motion pictures
    • Telegraph
  • By 1900 England and France (Ferry Laws) required school attendance to age 13 and education was free



Literacy rates increased

  • Literacy rates increased

    • Men higher than women
    • Urbanites more than rural
    • Northern/Western higher than Southern/Eastern

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