The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


Confessions of Augsburg (Lutheranism)


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Confessions of Augsburg (Lutheranism)

  • Spread

  • Peasant’s War

    • Twelve Articles demanded and end to serfdom and feudalism
    • Inspired by Luther
    • Luther supported German princes


    Schmalkalden League

    • Schmalkalden League

      • Lutheran Princes unite against Charles V
    • Peace of Augsburg (1555)

      • Cuius regio, eius religio
      • German princes could choose Lutheranism or Catholicism for their region


    CALVINISM

    • Institutes of the Christian Religion

      • Calvin’s foundational work
    • Predestination

    • The Elect

    • Geneva = Theocracy

    • Protestant Work Ethic

      • Hard work, results in financial success because God likes you
    • Presbyterians

      • John Knox
      • Scotland


    Huguenots

    • Huguenots

      • French Calvinists
      • Nobles
    • Dutch Reformed Church

      • Set the stage for revolt against Philip II
    • Puritans

      • England
      • America


    ENGLAND

    • Henry VIII

    • Marriages

      • Catherine of Aragon
      • Anne Boleyn
    • Church of England (Anglican Church)

      • Pope refuses annulment (Charles V)
      • Henry breaks away (Thomas Cranmer)


    Act of Supremacy (1534)

    • Act of Supremacy (1534)

      • King head of the Church
      • Confiscated Church lands
      • Monasteries closed down
    • Act of Succession (1534)

      • Oath of loyalty
      • Thomas More executed
    • Pilgrimage of Grace

      • Opposition to Henry’s Reformation
    • Statute of Six Articles (1539)

      • Maintained most of Catholic doctrines


    • Edward VI

      • Adopted Calvinism
      • Clergy could marry and removed iconic images
      • Salvation by faith alone and 2 sacraments
    • Mary Tudor

      • Returned England to Catholicism
      • Marian Exiles = Protestants fleeing
      • Bloody Mary
      • Married to Philip II of Spain
    • Elizabeth I

      • Daughter of Anne Boleyn who developed Protestantism in England
      • Politique between Anglicans and Puritans


    Elizabethan Settlement

    • Elizabethan Settlement

      • Book of Common Prayer
      • Catholicism remained but in private
      • English services
      • Clergy not allowed to marry
      • Required church services
    • Thirty-Nine Articles (1563)

      • Defined the creed of the Anglican Church
    • Mary Stuart



    OTHERS

    • Anabaptists

      • No connection to any state
      • Refused to take oaths, pay taxes or serve in the military
      • Rejected the Trinity
      • Polygamy
      • Burned books
      • Munster = Anabaptists leaders executed
    • Quakers



    Ulrich Zwingli

    • Ulrich Zwingli

      • 1st leader of the Swiss Reformation (Zurich)
      • Eucharist was only symbolic
      • Colloquy of Marburg
        • Split with Luther over Eucharist


    WOMEN

    • Luther believed women should be home taking care of the children

    • Calvin believed in maintaining the moral order

    • Suppressed common law marriages

    • Marriage should emphasize love

    • Bible reading increased women’s literacy

    • Protestant Women lost opportunities in church services, property ownership and legal transactions



    Catholic women had church opportunities in religious orders

    • Catholic women had church opportunities in religious orders

    • Angela Merci founded the Ursuline Order

      • Provide education and religious training
      • Combat heresy through education
    • Teresa de Avila



    CATHOLIC REFORMATION



    CAUSES

    • Pope Paul III wanted to improve Church through discipline and existing doctrines

    • Response to Protestant gains

    • Response to critics in the Church that abuses had to be reformed



    COUNCIL OF TRENT 1545 - 1563

    • Scripture, traditions and writings are equal

    • Salvation by faith and “good works”

    • All 7 sacraments valid (transubstantiation)

    • Monasteries, Celibacy and Purgatory

    • Index of Forbidden Books

    • Ended Abuses




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