The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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Cultural center



HENRY IV

  • 1st King of the Bourbons

  • Nobility

    • Nobility of the Sword
    • Nobility of the Robe = New nobles who purchased title from the King
  • Duke of Sully

    • Mercantilism
    • Encouraged industry
    • Reduced debt
    • Improved transportation system (Roads and Canals)


LOUIS XIII

  • Cardinal Richelieu

  • Intendant System

    • Weakens nobility
    • Replaces local officials with civil servants (Intendants)
    • Loyal to the King
  • Subdues Huguenots

  • Thirty Years War



LOUIS XIV

  • “L’etat, c’est moi” = I am the State

  • The Sun King

  • Cardinal Mazarin

    • Ruled France while Louis XIV was a child
    • Angered the Fronde (Nobles)
  • Fronde

    • Revolted during Louis XIV childhood
    • Louis determined to control Nobles from then on
  • Corvee = Forced labor



Versailles

  • Versailles

    • Most impressive palace (Baroque)
    • Cost 60% of annual budget
    • Controlled Noblity
  • Edict of Fountainbleau

  • Jean Baptiste Colbert

    • Financial Minister (Mercantilism)
    • Bullionism
    • Transportation system improved
    • Trade increased
    • Industrial power


War of Devolution

  • War of Devolution

    • Louis XIV invaded Spanish Netherlands
    • Wanted throne for this wife
    • Gets Alsace
  • War of the League of Augsburg

    • William of Orange (England) joins the League to block France
    • Starts Anglo-French rivalry


War of Spanish Succession

  • War of Spanish Succession

    • Charles II of Spain gives throne to grandson of Louis XIV
    • Grand Alliance opposes France
    • Treaty of Utrecht
      • Maintains balance of power
      • Ends Louis XIV expansionism
      • Britain gets Asiento and Gibraltar
      • Prussian King recognized
      • Spanish and Bourbon dynasties cannot be united
      • Destroys French economy
      • England grows in power


SPAIN

  • Spain declines in 17th Century

  • Economy hurt by loss of Jews and Moors

  • Spanish trade cut 60% by Brits and Dutch

  • Spanish treasury is bankrupt

  • Taxes hurt the peasants

  • Inflation from the price revolution hurt industries

  • Military defeats

    • Spanish Armada
    • Thirty Years War
    • Treaty of Pyrenees
    • War of Spanish Succession


EASTERN VS. WESTERN

  • WESTERN ABSOLUTISM

    • Divine Right of Kings
    • Absolute Monarchs not subordinate to Assemblies
    • Nobility brought under control
    • Government officials appointed by King
    • Control of Catholic Church
    • Secret police
    • Early Totalitarianism


EASTERN ABSOLUTISM

  • EASTERN ABSOLUTISM

    • Based on a powerful nobility, weak middle class and an oppressed peasantry composed of serfs
    • Kings imposed taxes without consent of their subjects
    • Maintained standing armies


SERFDOM

  • Serfdom strong in Eastern Europe

  • Drop in population created labor shortages (Black Death)

  • Nobles demanded kings and princes to restrict movement of peasants

  • Heavy labor obligations on serfs and non-serfs such as the robot that required 3-4 days a month of work for the noble

  • Hereditary serfdom established

  • Eastern nobles power allowed them to keep their serfs



AUSTRIAN EMPIRE

  • The ruler of Austria = Hapsburgs

  • Austrian Hapsburgs controlled Naples, Milan, Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), and Hungary

  • Hungary was the largest part of the dominion whose dominant group were the Magyars

  • It was a multinational empire with Germans, Italians, Czechs, Hungarians, Serbians, Romanians, etc included

  • The siege of Vienna repelled the Turks in 1683 ending the Ottoman influence in Central Europe

  • Emperor Charles VI issued the Pragmatic Sanction (1713) that the empire is never to be divided and passed to his daughter Maria Theresa in 1740.



PRUSSIA

  • Hohenzollerns were the ruling family

  • Marriages allowed the Hohenzollerns to gain territory

  • Frederick William the Great Elector (1640-88)

    • Religious toleration granted to Jews and Catholics
    • Created the most efficient army in Europe
    • Junkers were the backbone of the Prussian Military officers (Nobles)
  • Frederick I

    • 1st King of Prussia
    • Encouraged higher education
    • Fought two wars with Louis XIV to maintain balance of power



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