The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


Frederick William I Frederick William I


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Frederick William I

  • Frederick William I

    • Made Prussia the Sparta of the North
    • Doubled the size of the military
    • 80% of revenue went to the military
    • Army was seen as a deterence
    • Established schools for peasant children
    • Civil service advancement based on merit


RUSSIA

  • Ivan III (The Great)

    • Ended Mongol domination of Muscovy
    • Established Moscow as Third Rome for the Eastern Orthodox Church
    • The Czar (Tsar) claimed divine right absolute power
    • Fought with the Boyars (nobles) for power
  • Ivan IV (The Terrible)

    • Increased the size of Russia
    • Cossacks were a problem
    • Executed Nobles who opposed him
    • Increased serfdom


Period of famine, wars and power struggles followed Ivan IV known as the Time of Troubles

    • Period of famine, wars and power struggles followed Ivan IV known as the Time of Troubles
      • Cossacks
      • Sweden and Poland
  • Michael Romanov

    • Selected by the Boyars to be the new Czar
    • Expanded empire to the Pacific Ocean
    • The Cossack revolts led to more restrictions on the serfs
    • Old Believers opposed the influx of Western European religious groups into Russia
    • Began Westernizing Russia


Peter the Great (1682-1725)

  • Peter the Great (1682-1725)

    • The revolt of the Strelski was defeated by Peter
    • Expanded the army by requiring serfs to serve 25 year enlistments
    • The Great Northern War against Sweden gave Russia Latvia and Estonia that will become is Window on the West in the Baltic Sea
    • He will import western technology and experts to Westernize Russia
    • Peter ruled by decree
    • The Table of Ranks set education standards for civil servants
    • Orthodox Church became a part of the government under his control
    • The Winter Palace in St. Petersburg was to model Versailles


OTTOMAN EMPIRE

  • Could not maintain possessions in the Balkans and Central Europe because of Russian and Austrian advances

  • Suleiman the Magnificent nearly conquered ½ of Eastern Europe

  • The Janissary corps were Christian slaves selected to loyal servants in the Ottoman bureaucracy

  • As Muslim religious leaders gained influence they rejected European ideas speeding up its decline as the Sick Man of Europe



POLAND

  • Liberum veto required a unanimous vote in the Polish parliament to make changes

  • Russia and Prussia encouraged nobles to invoke liberum veto to weaken Poland

  • Poland carved up by Russia, Austria and Prussia by 1800.



CONSTITUTIONALISM



STUART ENGLAND

  • James I

    • Believed in divine right of kings
      • “No bishop, No King”
    • Dissolved Parliament over taxes
    • Guy Fawkes Plot
    • King James Bible
  • Charles I

    • Divine Right of Kings
    • Wanted to rule without Parliament
    • Taxes and Quartering of troops


Petition of Right (1628)

  • Petition of Right (1628)

    • Parliament wanted basic legal rights in return for taxes
    • Only Parliament can levy taxes
    • No imprisonment without due process of law
    • Habeas corpus
    • No quartering of troops
    • No martial law during peacetime
    • King agrees to get taxes
  • Dissolves Parliament (1629)

    • Parliament refuses to raise taxes
    • Rules without Parliament
    • Raises money using Medieval forms of taxation
    • Ship Money


Archbishop Laud

  • Archbishop Laud

    • Drives Puritans out of Church of England
  • The Short Parliament (1640)

    • Scottish revolt over English Prayer Book
    • Charles needed taxes but is disbanded over not acceptance of Petition of Right
  • The Long Parliament (1640-1648)

    • Scottish victory
    • Parliament cannot be dissolved
    • Archbishop Laud executed
    • Star Chamber abolished
    • Common law over Royal law


OLIVER CROMWELL

  • Charles tries to arrest Puritan leaders in Parliament starting the English Civil War

  • Cavaliers

    • Supporters of the King (Anglican Church)
    • Old Nobility
    • Irish Catholics
  • Roundheads

    • Puritans and Presbyterians
    • London
    • Businessmen
    • Scotland
  • Oliver Cromwell

    • Commander of Roundheads New Model Army
    • Defeated Charles I at Nasby
    • Stops Scottish invasion


Pride’s Purge

  • Pride’s Purge

    • New Model Army removes non-Puritans from Parliament
    • Rump Parliament
  • Charles I beheaded

  • New Sects Emerge

    • Levellers = Social and Political Reforms
    • Diggers = Rejected Parliament’s authority and private ownership of land
    • Quakers = Inner light

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