The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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The Interregnum = No King



The Protectorate

  • The Protectorate

    • Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell
    • Dissolves Rump Parliament
    • England divided in 12 military districts
    • Denies religious freedom to Anglicans and Catholics
    • Jews encouraged to return
  • Military Accomplishments



Puritan Regulations

  • Puritan Regulations

    • Enforcement of Public morality
    • No theatres, dancing, or sports
    • Strict observance of the Sabbath
    • Press censored
    • Led to the restoration of Charles II


RESTORATION

  • Charles II

    • Agreed the King’s power was not absolute
    • Religious toleration granted
  • Tories and Whigs

    • Tories = Nobles, Gentry, Anglicans, pro-Monarchy
    • Whigs = Middle-class, Anglicans, pro-Parliament
  • The Clarendon Code (1661)

    • Restriction on Catholics and Puritans
    • The Test Act (1673)
      • Excluded from voting, teaching, preaching, government those unwilling to accept the sacraments of the Church of England


Catholicism

  • Catholicism

    • Charles II granted religious toleration to Catholics
      • Deal with Louis XIV for $
    • Popish Plot = Titus Oates
    • Dissolved Parliament over succession crisis
      • Law denying succession to James II who was Catholic
  • Habeas Corpus Act (1679)

    • Prisoners be in court
    • Just cause for imprisonment
    • Speedy trials
    • No Double jeopardy
  • Scotland

    • Charles II names himself head of the Church of Scotland
    • Wanted to impose Anglican Church
    • Killing Time in Scotland


James II (1655-58)

  • James II (1655-58)

    • Wanted to return England to Catholicism
    • Granted Religious freedom to all
    • Starts the Glorious Revolution


GLORIOUS REVOLUTION 1688

  • Parliament wanted a Constitutional Monarchy

  • Declaration of Indulgence

    • Grants freedom of worship to Catholics
    • Catholic heir is born
  • James II abdicates throne

  • William and Mary

    • Parliament declares them joint monarchs
    • Agrees to the Bill of Rights


The Bill of Rights

  • The Bill of Rights

    • King cannot be Roman Catholic
    • Laws made with consent of Parliament
    • Parliament has freedom of speech
    • Taxation only with Parliament approval
    • Due process of law
    • Right to bear arms
    • Right of petition
    • No dissolving of Parliament by monarch
  • John Locke

    • Defends Glorious Revolution
    • People create a government to protect their natural rights
    • Life, Liberty and Property
  • Act of Settlement (1701)

    • If no successor then crown goes to the House of Hanover
    • German princes


The Cabinet System

  • The Cabinet System

    • The leading ministers selected by the majority party of the House of Commons make common policy
    • They conduct the business of the country under the Prime Minister
  • Robert Walpole

    • 1st Prime Minister
    • Cabinet was responsible to House of Commons and not the King


NETHERLANDS

  • Government controlled by bourgeoisie

  • Confederation of 7 provinces

  • Each province was self-governing and represented in the Estates General

  • Each province elected a stadholder (governor)

  • In times of crisis they elected one stadholder to be the military leader (House of Orange)



RELIGION, ECONOMICS & POLITICS

  • Calvinism was dominant religion

  • Catholics and Jews enjoyed religious toleration

  • Cosmopolitan society

  • Amsterdam (Banking and Trade)

  • Relied on Commerce

  • Dutch East India Company

  • Wars with England, France and the Spanish Succession caused them to decline



SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

  • Medieval views were based on Aristotle and Ptolemy

    • Geocentric
    • Church views, traditions and practices governed society
  • Causes of Revolution

    • Free inquiry by philosophers
    • Scientific figures taught at universities
    • Renaissance stimulated science in rediscovering ancient mathematics


COPERNICUS

  • On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres

  • Heliocentric View

  • Challenged Ptolemy and the book of Genesis


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