The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance

Girls had less access to secondary education (Females had to pay)

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Girls had less access to secondary education (Females had to pay)


  • Louis Pasteur

    • Developed germ theory
    • Pasteurization
    • Reduced food poisoning
  • Joseph Lister

    • Antiseptic principle in surgeries
    • Fewer people dying of infection from surgery
  • August Comte

    • Positivism
    • All intellectual activity travels through predictable stages
    • Humans will one day discover the eternal laws of human relations
    • Wanted a religion of science
    • Wanted rule to be by the Social Scientists

Charles Darwin

  • Charles Darwin

    • Theory of Evolution
    • All life evolved gradually from a common origin
    • Struggle for survival and adaption
  • Herbert Spencer

    • Social Darwinism
    • Survival of the Fittest
    • Imperialists and Industrialists used this theory to justify their crushing of the competition
  • Sigmund Freud

    • The human subconscious (ID) was not subject to reason
    • Sex was the driving force to one’s psychological make-up
    • Repressed sexual desires lead to psychological problems
    • Dreams
    • Hypnosis

Marie Curie

  • Marie Curie

    • Discovered first radioactive element with her husband
  • Max Planck

    • Quantum theory that subatomic energy is emitted in uneven spurts
    • Laws of universe are now unpredictable
  • Albert Einstein

    • Theory of Relativity of time and space challenged Newton
    • Time and space are relative to the observer
    • E = mc2:
      • Matter and energy are interchangeable
      • Even a tiny particle contains enormous levels of potential energy
    • Warned FDR that Germans were building an atomic bomb

Darwinism challenged the Bible’s account of the creation of humans

  • Darwinism challenged the Bible’s account of the creation of humans

  • Freudian psychology undermined the belief that humans were rational beings in control of their emotions

  • Shattered belief that universe could be explained easily via Newtonian phsyics

  • This uncertainty created by physics along with WW I will create an age of pessimism


  • Belief that literature and art should depict life as it really was

  • A reaction to the failure of the 1848 Revolutions

  • Gustave Flaubert depicted middle class as petty, smug and hypocritical

  • Leo Tolstoy had a fatalistic view of history but regards love, trust and everyday family ties as life’s enduring values

  • Artist were no longer dependent on patrons but created art they could sell

  • Ordinary people in urban settings became the focus of Realism Art

  • Millet, Degas, Manet


  • Impact of photography in which the subject is captured accurately

  • Painters sought to capture the momentary feeling or impression of the scene right before them

  • Monet, Renoir


  • Desire to know and depict worlds other than the visible world can see

  • Wanted to portray the unseen, inner worlds of emotion and imagination

  • A psychological view of reality

  • Vincent van Gogh

  • Paul Cezanne

  • Pablo Picasso (Cubism)


  • Nationalism decreased the influence of the Catholic church in some areas

  • Liberalism distanced society from the pope

  • Pope Pius IX condemned liberalism and Italian unification with his Syllabus of Errors

  • 1870 the pope was declared to be infallible when speaking on religious matters

  • Pope Leo XIII issued Rerum Novarum that condemned Socialism and Marxism while defending private property (capitalism) in hopes Catholics would participate in the politics of more liberal states

It also wanted laws protecting workers from exploitation

  • It also wanted laws protecting workers from exploitation

  • Leo XIII announcement led to the creation of Catholic Political parties



  • Dispute between Catholics and Orthodox over privileges in the Holy Lands

  • Turks gave preference to Napoleon III and the Catholics

  • Czar Nicholas I believe Eastern Orthodox access was in jeopardy

  • Russia took Turk lands, Turks declare war on Russia

  • Britain and France join the Turks who were Muslims

  • Alexander II agreed to the Four Points ending the war

Florence Nightingale = nursing

  • Florence Nightingale = nursing

  • Russia was behind militarily and move toward industrialization and the modernization of its army

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