The usage of different types of control in the lesson of Foreign Language


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The usage of different types of control in the lesson of Foreign Language

Preface

language foreign control



This paper deals with the different kinds of controls and the usage in the class (lesson) of foreign languages. The actuality of the properly organized control of pupils’ achievements gives the teacher an opportunity to get a clear idea of his pupils’ progress in foreign language learning. Analyzing the results of controls or testing, the teacher will see his shortcomings both in methods and techniques applied and in the progress of each pupil. It allows him to improve his own work. In this connection P. Olive writes, “A control measures not only the student’s performance but also the effectiveness of the teacher’s instruction. Control serves a diagnostic function. They show where students have difficulties. They provide information which should lead the teacher to modify his instruction”. Furthermore, control, it is the determination of the level of language proficiency that achieved by the students for a certain period of learning and training. So in addition, control is the part of the lesson that during learning teacher assesses how students have learned the material. The main purposes of control allows:

  1. To teachers get information about:

- the result of pupil’s knowledge separately and as a whole;

- the result of their own methods, techniques and the effectiveness on the process of teaching;



  1. To pupils:

  • To enhance the motivation on the process of learning, so as controls help to determine their success and failure;

  • To study more diligently, make correction in the learning process.

The object of the control might be: a) a knowledge that formulated on the basis of language skills (language competence); b) the ability to use acquired knowledge and skills in different communicative situation (communicative competence); c) to learn the country of that language and their cultures, traditions and nations (socio-cultural competence). Not only to learn the abilities to speak on the way of language learning, but also the acquisition of language system is considered as a main object of the control.

The problem of the control: Deficiency of usage different kinds of controls on the process of foreign language teaching.

The features of control: Control in the classroom should reflect the specific nature of a foreign language as a school subject. In the study of academic disciplines that introduce the fundamentals of science, the purpose of determining the level of control is the knowledge acquired in the field of a science in a low degree - formed skills. Assimilation of a foreign language, is referred to the group of practical disciplines provide primarily seizing the means using language in a variety of activities and areas of communication. Therefore, control of knowledge of the language system does not provide information on the practical language possession as the level of communicative competence.

1. The importance of control


Control is an important part of every teaching and learning experience. How control helps students learning English can help students in at least two ways. First of all, such controls help create positive attitudes toward your class. In the interest of motivation and efficient instruction, teachers almost universally aim at providing positive classroom experiences for their students. There are some important ways that testing (as a one types of controls) can contribute to this aim. One that applies in nearly every class is a sense of accomplishment. In the early 1970s students in an intensive ESL program were being taught from an unstructured conversation-based text. These students complained that while they had ample opportunity to converse in English, they were “not learning anything”. Soon afterwards, however, periodic evaluation provided them with a sense of accomplishment that ended their dissatisfaction. Controls of appropriate difficulty announced well in advance and covering skills scheduled to be evaluated, can also contribute to a positive tone by demonstrating your spirit of fair play and consistency with course objectives.

A second way that English controls can benefit students is by helping them master the language. They are helped, of course, when they study for exams and again when exams are returned and discussed. Where several control tasks are given, learning can also be enhanced by student’s growing awareness of your objectives and the areas of emphasis in the course. Control tasks con foster learning, too, by their diagnostic characteristics: They confirm what each person has mastered, and they point up those language items needing further attention. Naturally, a better awareness of course objectives and personal language needs can help your students adjust their personal goals. For example, one person might note your strong control emphasis on oral comprehension, and he might also find that he had missed several vocabulary items on a recent test. One logical step would be for him to concentrate on the meaning of troublesome words, especially in a spoken context. Learning to spell them or recognize them in a printed context would become a second priority. So good English control tasks help students learn the language by requiring them to study hard, emphasizing course objectives, and showing them where they need to improve. Teachers who teach English as a Second or Foreign Language are generally expected to be accountable for the results of our instruction. The control tasks can help them answer the important question “Have I been effective in my teaching?” In other words, they can use them to diagnose efforts as well as those of for their students. Even As they record the test scores, they might well ask themselves the following questions: “Are my lessons on the right level? Or am I aiming my instruction too low or high?” “What areas do we need more work on? Which points need reviewing?” In addition, control tasks can provide insights into ways that we can improve the evaluation process itself: “Were the test instructions clear?” “Was everyone able to finish in the allotted time?” “Did the test results reflect accurately how my students have been responding in class and in their assigned work?” Controls, then, benefit students, teachers, and even administrators by confirming progress that has been made and showing how we can best redirect their future efforts. In addition, good tests can sustain or enhance class morale and aid learning.


2. The requirements and forms of the control
It goes without saying that control will be effective when it appropriates with requirements of didactic and methods of learning foreign languages. The main requirements in control, it might be objectivity, regularity, differentiated character and clarity and precision in the formulation of control tasks. So, objectivity in control, it means compliance monitoring of the results of training a certain standard contained in the list of requirements to the level of proficiency for different stages of learning profiles. Knowledge assumes of the criteria for assessing students for various activities, compliance with these criteria, minimize subjectivity in the evaluation of students. Objectivity in control provided by:

  • Quantitative evaluation of performance. Here, the greatest objectivity achieved by taking into account the number of errors in the speech, estimate the rate of speech and a number of other performance indicators;

  • Qualitative assessment of performance (completeness of disclosure topics compliance statements job skill adequately express their thoughts in a given speech situation and etc.). It is possible in the assessment activities of subjectivity of students and the teacher must be prepared to assess formulated choice in terms of the existing criteria.

Regularity in control indicates that it has a systematic character. It is known that the intensity and duration of the students to memorize the acquired material depend on many frequency and regularity of control.

Differentiated character in control suggests requirements that followed below:



  • Forms of control should be appropriate with those aspects of language or type of that performance which is getting to be checked. Thus, the assessments of language knowledge, especially in speaking part will be checked by differentiated features, but source of controls are its own oral part. For dialogic objects of control might be to understand partner’s speech and definite his/her communicative intention, furthermore adequately influence on partner’s replication, ability to initiate a dialog (to ask questions, make offers, desires, wish and so on). So, for monologue speech the objects of control will be ability to create constrained text from various communicative directions (affirmative, e-mail, essay, composition, discussion). Mainly, it consists of that control from speech will be correctly checked in the process of oral communication.

  • Forms of control should be chosen depending on stage of teaching and student’s individual-psychological peculiarities. This kind requirement reflects presence different levels of development.

Clarity and precision formulation in control tasks usually define success in the process of control. Sometimes control tasks might be formulated in learners’ native language and installation for carrying out given tasks will assist to have well understanding about tasks.
3. Forms of control will be different
They are individual, frontage, group and pair. Each of these forms of control accomplished in oral and written forms. In order to determine the level of knowledge’s monologue speech suits individual control: it means learners introduced with text and carry out tasks for test during certain time. Successfulness in carrying out tasks assess with such criteria:

  1. Accordance transmitting the information of text content and tasks;

  2. Connection and logicality in transmission;

  3. Fullness and clarity of transmitted text;

  4. Movement information with norms (lexicon -grammatically and phonetic-intonation).

Individual forms of control means an effective way of objective control, thus through this kind control determines each learner’s success. That’s why mostly it suits to check learner’s knowledge at the end of the course as a final control. But this kind of control is not so suitable for kid learners, because they are not able to have attention separately. Secondly it is no so effective because while teacher explains one by one for kids, others get noisy. In the auditory individual control will be in oral form, but written form will be at the end of the each new theme.

Front control means that teacher fully has conversation and explanation with all learners at the same time they should give answer one by one just sitting on their chair. So effectiveness of this control are ability fully scope while checked; high activities of learners; high rate of execution of tasks. The limitation of front control is that teacher cannot give explanation about task one by one, here if student is not fully pay attention on teacher, they are not able to answer. That’s why front control mostly suits to current control.

Group control will be got at the same time for all learners as a group work such as discussion for problem question, make role play for read texts, so teacher should prepare all tasks and their attendance in advance.

language foreign control

4. Several kinds of control in the lesson of Foreign Language
These kinds of controls are outlined in the books of Shuckin A.N, that he gave preliminary, current, mid-term and total controls.

Aim of the preliminary control contains that while checking learners’ knowledge from language and their individual abilities (mind, attention, interests to learning language, inclination, and common development). So this kind of control helps to determine not only learner’s knowledge, also their individually- psychological qualities, which assists success in the process of Foreign Language Learning.



Current control affords to check learner’s language successes in the process of development and installation speech skills and abilities. This control should be regularly and directed to checking captured certain kinds of educational materials.

Mid-term control is conducted to a finished unit. It affords to check about effectiveness of divided program materials.

The final control directed to installation level of language knowledge that achieved certain kinds of volume of materials as a result in certain period of time (at the end of curriculum). The peculiarities of this kind of control concluded in the direction of determine level of language as communicative competence. That’s why for the final control is used special kinds of tests, which allowed learners to be checked fully.
4. Test is one of the types of control and their characteristics
Test (from English it means “trial” and “investigation”) – this is the system of tasks, which carried out and afford characterize the level of knowledge of English language with the help of special scale results. Furthermore, tests are used for determination of learners’ ability, mental development and other kinds of personal characteristics. There are four main reasons for testing which give to rise to four categories of test. Placement test: placing new students in the right class in a school facilitated with the use of placement tests. Usually based on syllabuses and materials the students will follow and use their level has been decided on, these test grammar and vocabulary knowlrdge and assess students’s productive and receptive skills. Some schools ask students to assess themselves as part of placement process adding this self analysis into the finalplacing decision. Diagnostic test: while placement tests are designed to show how good a student’s English is in relation to a previouslyagreed system of levels, diagnostic tests can be used to expose learner difficulties, gaps in their knowledge, and skills deficiencies during a course. Thus, when we know what the problems are, we can do something about them. Progress and achievement tests: these tests are designed to measure learners’ language and skill progress in relation to the syllabus they have been following. Achievement tests only work if they contain item types which the studentsare familiar with. This doesn’t mean that in a reading test, for example, we give them texts they have seen before, but it does mean providing them with similar texts and familiar text types. If students faced with completely new material, the test will not measure the learning that has been taking place, even though it can still measure general language proficiency. Achievement tests at the end of a term (like progress testsat the end of a unit, a fortnight, etc.) should progress, not failure. They should reinforce the learning that has taken place, not go out of their way to expose weaknesses. They can also help us to decide on change to future teaching programmes where students do significantly worse in (parts of) the test than we might have expected. Proficiency tests: proficiency tests give a general picture of a students’ knowledge and ability (rather than measure progress). They re frequently used as stages people have to reach if they want to be admitted to a foreign university, get a job, or obtain some kind of certificate. Proficiency tests have a profound backwash effect since, where they are external exams, students obviously want to pass them, and teacher’s reputations sometimes depend (probably unfairly) upon how many of them succeed.

In order to judge the effectiveness of any test it is sensible to law down criteria against which the test can be measured, as follows: Validity: a testis valid if it tests what it is supposed to test. Thus it is not valid, for example, to test writing ability with an essay question that requires specialist knowledge of history or biology – unless it is known that all students share this knowledge before they do the test. A particular kind of validity that concerns most test designers is face validity. This means that the test should look, on the face of it, as if it is valid. A test which consisted of only three multiple choice items would not convince students of its face validity however reliable or practical teachers thought it to be. Reliability: a good test should give consistent results. For example, if the same group of students took the same test twice within two days – without reflecting on the first test before they sat it again- they should get the same results on each occasion. If they took another similar test, the result should be consistent. If two groups who were demonstrably alike took the test, the marking range would be the same.


5. The usage of various controls in several skills
As we will be introduced below some kind of tests or controls in grammar, vocabulary and so on four skills such as speaking, writing, reading, listening and reading skills. Here my purpose is to show each items separately and at the same time to figure out theirs’ advantages and disadvantages. In this way every teachers can choose appropriate kinds of test according to his/her learners’ language level. So first one is for vocabulary and grammar.

Vocabulary and Grammar tests

The purpose of vocabulary test is to measure the comprehension and production of words used in speaking or writing. Four general kinds of vocabulary tests are presented. The first, limited response is for beginners. These test items require either a simple physical action like pointing at something or a very simple verbal answer such as “yes” or “no”. The second, multiple-choice completion, is a test in which sentence with a missing word is presented; students choose one of four vocabulary items given to complete the sentence. A third type, multiple- choice paraphrase, is a test in which a sentence with one word underlined is given. Students choose which of four words is the closet in meaning to the underlined item. A fourth kind of test, simple completion (words), has students write in the missing part of words that appear in sentences. Deciding how to test vocabulary is related to how we teach it. Most ESL teachers today do not recommend having students simply memorize lists of words. Instead, they teach students to find the meaning of words through of context of the sentence, and they help increase comprehension by teaching important affixes (happy: unhappy/beauty: beautiful). In testing vocabulary, we also need to avoid presenting words in isolation. Checking vocabulary mastery can be adjusted to match your emphasis on oral or written skills. Suppose improving conversation skills is your primary objective: You can test vocabulary by using oral clues (“What time is it?”) and by requiring spoken answers (“It is nine o’clock”). On the other hand, suppose you are stressing reading: You can offer a written multiple- choice format (“He bought a cake at the (A) bank, (B) bakery, (C) hardware store, (D) bookstore”).

Activities: A. LIMITED RESPONSE.



  1. Write out five commands that a student can perform (individually) by moving about the room, and five commands that he can perform while sitting down.

  2. Write out five commands or questions that a student can respond to (individually) by pointing to a picture that you have found. Include the picture.

  3. Using the picture from activity 2, prepare five requests five requests that require students to follow instructions by drawing.

  4. Using original line drawings or pictures (from your students’ text) showing activities, prepare five vocabulary questions that require short answers. Supply sample answers.

Advantages of Limited Response:

  • It causes less stress or nervousness than other types of tests.

  • It avoids skills such as reading and writing that have not yet been developed.

  • It can be scored easily and objectively.

Limitations of Limited Response:

  • It requires individual testing, which takes longer than group testing.

  • It is usually difficult to test abstract words with this technique.

  • Sketches are sometimes ambiguous (e.g., an orange may look like a ball; running may look like dancing or jumping).

B. MULTIPLE-CHOICE COMPLETION.

1. The following sentences contain examples of distractor difficulties. Identify the weakness in each item. Then correct it.



2. Prepare five test items from words in your students’ text, or use the following vocabulary words: truth/weekend/secret/perfume.

  1. For each word write a sentence context that reflects the meaning of word as clearly as possible.

  2. Prepare three good distractors for each test item.

  3. Write simple, clear instructions, and include an example.

Advantages of Multiple- Choice Completion:

  • It helps students see the full meaning of words by providing natural contexts. Also, it is a good influence on instruction: It discourages word-list memorization.

  • Scoring is easy and consistent.

  • It is a sensitive measure of achievement.

Limitations of Multiple –Choice Completion:

  • It is rather difficult to prepare good sentence contexts that clearly show the meaning of the word being tested.

  • It is easy for students to cheat by copying what others have circled.

Grammar tests are designed to measure student proficiency in matters ranging from inflections (bottle-bottles, bake-baked) to syntax. Syntax involves the relationship of words in a sentence, including matters such as word order, use of negative, question forms, and connectives.

LIMITED RESPONSE: The grammar of students with very little ability in English can be checked without having them speak or write anything. This can be done by means of directed physical responses and visuals. So here was presented two basic ways to measure grammar skills of these beginning level students: (1) testing them one at a time, and (2) testing them in groups.

Individual testing: You can test students individually by using oral requests. These requests can ask for easy spoken replies or simply for nonverbal actions. When teaching students who know almost no English, you can permit answers in their native language.

Example: (students hear in English)

“How many books are on the table?”

(students answer in their language)

“There are six.”

Pictures can be used to test students individually or in a groups. To test preposition recognition, we can ask , “Is the lady on the house?” Or we can say, “Point to the child behind the car.”

Group testing: You can also test students in groups by using directed physical responses. The following “drawing” activity can test prepositions of place: First, explain and illustrate any new vocabulary words. Then have students make a drawing according to your spoken instructions: “Draw an airplane in the middle of the paper.[pause while students draw.] Now draw a house below the airplane. [Pause] Next draw a cloud in front of the airplane.” Using a picture like the first one, you can test your student’s understanding of prepositions. For example, we can say, “Draw a circle around the person on the house” or “Draw an ‘X’ on the boy behind the car”. Sets of three or four related pictures can evaluate mastery of a number of grammar points. Here is a set that tests the comparative:

(nonverbal) “Circle the picture that illustrates this sentence: ‘The boy is as big as the girl.’”

(yes-no) “Look at picture ‘B.’ Is the boy as big as the girl?”

(true-false) “Look at picture ‘C’ The girl is taller than the boy”

Advantages of Limited Response:


  • It puts students at ease and avoids unnecessary stress.

  • It avoids skills such as reading and writing that have not yet been developed.

  • It can be scored easily and objectively.

Limitations of Limited Response:

  • Individual testing takes longer than group testing.

  • It is difficult to find suitable pictures (although the teacher can make needed sketches).

  • Only a limited number of grammatical structures can be tested.

СLOZE PROCEDURE.

Cloze tests are prose passages, usually a paragraph or more in length, from which words have been deleted. The student relies on the context in order to supply the missing words. At the present time, no single test format is more popular than the cloze procedure. It is easy to prepare and rather easy to score. Teachers like it too because it is integrative – that is, it requires students to process the components of language simultaneously, much like what happens when people communicate. Moreover, studies have shown that it relates well to various language measures- from listening comprehension to overall performance on a battery of language tests. In brief, it is a good measure of overall proficiency.


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