To list points


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To list points: In the first place, firstly, to begin with, taking everything into account, lastly, secondly

  • To add more points: therefore, also, apart from this, moreover, in other words, for addition, furthermore, while, since

  • To introduce opposing viewpoints: although, for on thing, on the other hand, nonetheless, however

  • To introduce examples/reasons: for example, such as, for instance

  • To conclude: to sun up, all thins considered.



    Ex. 15


    Traffic in the city is terrible.

    Traffic congestion is one of the most serious problems in big cities and it has made people’s lives more difficult. Thirty years ago, there were fewer cars on the street and people did not suffer from traffic. Today, however, streets are full of cars, buses and trucks. This essay will analyse the most important causes of traffic congestion and will explain the effects of it.

    Several factors have contributed to the problem of traffic in big cities. The most significant factor is the high number of cars. Today, companies manufacture a large number of cars and it is pretty easy for people to have one. Furthermore, many families own two or three cars which result in the increase of traffic congestion. Another contributing factor is the lack of public transports. For example, there are very few subway systems in my hometown, Tehran, and bus system is inconvenient and inefficient. Therefore, people use their own cars even in rush hours. The last cause is road system. Most of the streets in my city are narrow and few cars can pass through them simultaneously.

    The problem of traffic has several effects on people and city. The most significant effect is increased anger and frustration. Every day, people experience a delay in reaching their workplaces or universities. This leads to high tension and stress among them. Another feasible effect worth mentioning here is the environmental effect. The quality of air declines because of the exhaust fumes generated by cars which may result in severe health problems such as asthma, bronchitis and heart attacks. The waste of time on average is huge and this is another major drawback the bad traffic is causing.

    Overall, traffic is mainly caused by overpopulation and people’s reliance on their own cars. If governments provide more facilities and encourage people to use public transport, I am sure that the level of traffic will decline in the near future.

    EX. 1


    Draft - a written order for money to be paid by a bank, especially to another bank

    Ex. 2


    Answer the phone

    Cash a cheque

    Join a team

    Program a computer

    Attend a conference

    Ex. 3


    1. Competitor

    2. Competitor

    3. Competent

    4. Competitively

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