Топшириқлар: 1 – топшириқ (гуруҳ билан ишлаш)

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1 – топшириқ (гуруҳ билан ишлаш)

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Central Asia is a region which stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China and Mongolia in the east, and from Afghanistan and Iran in the south to Russia in the north. The region consists of the former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.[2] It is also colloquially referred to as "the stans" as the countries generally considered to be within the region all have names ending with the Persian suffix "-stan", meaning "land of".[3] Depending on different interpretations, the neighbouring areas are sometimes also considered part of the region.Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road.[4] It has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, West Asia, South Asia, and East Asia.[5] The Silk Road connected Muslim lands with the people of Europe, South Asia, and East Asia.[6] This crossroads position has intensified the conflict between tribalism and traditionalism and modernization.[7] The age of the Timurid Renaissance began from today's Uzbekistan.

  • What famous representatives of Renaissance periods of Central Asia do you know?

Abu Ali Ibn Sino is the pride of Central Asia and one of the greatest scientists. Besides medicine he was occupied with mathematics, logic and philosophy.He was born in Bukhara in the village of Afshana in 980 and got his education in Bukhara. Because of his perfect memory and quick wits he obtained a lot of knowledge very quickly. He had already learnt the Koran by heart when he was 10. Later, when he was 17, he had been already known as a great doctor.

He devoted his whole life to gain new knowledge, to cure people, to find the reasons for many diseases, to write works on medicine and to bring this knowledge to upcoming generation. Ibn Sino travelled to many cities as a visitor and died from serious disease on June 18, 1037 in the city of Isfahan.

  • What was the scholars’ and philsophers’ contribution to the world civilization?

In the period from the 9th to 12th century – the era sometimes referred to as the Age of the Eastern Renaissance – Central Asia produced some of the most enlightened thinkers, who went on to make groundbreaking contributions in such fields as physics, chemistry, mathematics, astronomy, geography, medicine and agriculture.

Muhammad al-Khwarazmi who lived in the 9th century, a mathematician born in the territory of present-day Uzbekistan, is known as the father of algebra, since it is his works which introduced the concepts of algebra into European mathematics. The title of one of his books gave the world the word “algebra,” while the word “algorithm” derives from the latinisation of the scholar’s name.
11th-century philosopher and scientist Abu Ali ibn Sina, better known in the West as Avicenna, a native of Bukhara, was regarded as the most prominent physician since Hippocrates. The Latin translation of his book “The Cannon of Medicine” was a staple text in the Western medical curriculum for several centuries.
The great Central Asian polymath Abu al-Rayhan al-Beruni, who also lived in the 11th century, is believed to be the first person to suggest that a landmass existed beyond Europe and Asia. Many centuries before the rest of the world, al-Beruni discussed the possibility of the Earth revolving around the Sun. He measured the earth’s circumference with incredible accuracy, erring from the exact value of 24,900 miles by a mere 200 miles, a remarkable achievement for someone who lived 1,000 years ago.
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