Trace metals in pm: Spain


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Trace metals in PM: Spain

  • xavier.querol@idaea.csic.es
  • 12th TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Alastuey A., Querol X., Viana M.M., Pey J., Pérez N., Moreno T., Amato F., Pandolfi M., Cusack M., Ripoll A., and Reche C.
  • Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, CSIC, Barcelona, SPAIN
  • de la Rosa J., Gonzalez Castanedo Y., Sánchez de la Campa A.
  • Huelva University - Unidad Asociada CSIC

Ministry of Environment and Marine and Rural Affairs

  • HM data in Spain
  • Ministry of Environment and Marine and Rural Affairs
  • EMEP SITES
  • Heavy metals – Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Cu, Cr- in PM10
  • HM – Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Cu, Cr- in precipitation and bulk deposition
  • Hg in PM and precipitation
  • HM in soils (Navarra)
  • AQ networks
  • Heavy metals – Pb, Cd, Ni, As- in PM10
  • IDAEA-CSIC
  • Heavy metals in PM
  • Contract S-G D Air Quality and Industrial Environment
  • EVALUATION OF PM POLLUTION IN SPAIN
  • Izaña
  • Santa Cruz
  • L’Hospitalet
  • Sagrera
  • Monagrega
  • Huelva
  • Madrid
  • Alcobendas
  • Bemantes
  • LLodio
  • Montseny
  • BCN-CSIC
  • Cartagena
  • Burgos
  • Badajoz
  • Puertollano
  • Palma
  • Algeciras
  • Onda
  • El Saler
  • L’Alcora
  • Borriana
  • Vila-real
  • Tarragona
  • La línea
  • Los Barrios
  • 1999-2000
  • 2001
  • 2004
  • 2002-2003
  • 2002-2004
  • 2003-2005
  • Pamplona
  • Alsasua
  • El Perdón
  • Bailén
  • 2002-2010
  • PM Speciation
  • Monitoring sites
  • N=38
  • Alacant
  • Montsec
  • Urban-industrial
  • Period
  • N
  • Tarragona
  • 2001
  • 90
  • Puertollano
  • 2004
  • 110
  • Algeciras
  • 2003-2004
  • 79
  • Puente Mayorga
  • 2005-2010
  • 257
  • La Linea
  • 2003-2010
  • 330
  • Huelva
  • 2001-2010
  • 650
  • Llodio
  • 2001
  • 87
  • Vila-real
  • 2002-2010
  • 505
  • L'Alcora
  • 2002-2010
  • 643
  • Torrelavega
  • 2007
  • 96
  • Bailen
  • 2007
  • 40
  • Traffic
  • Period
  • N
  • Madrid E Aguirre
  • 2007
  • 90
  • L'Hospitalet
  • 1999
  • 114
  • Granada
  • 2006-2010
  • 83
  • Mediterraneo Algeciras
  • 2007
  • 45
  • Period
  • N
  • Alcobendas
  • 2001
  • 86
  • Alsasua
  • 2002-2003
  • 89
  • Badajoz
  • 2004
  • 89
  • Barcelona-CSIC
  • 2003-2010
  • 686
  • Burgos
  • 2004
  • 98
  • Las Plamas
  • 2001
  • 90
  • Palma Mallorca
  • 2004
  • 80
  • Sta Ana-Cart.
  • 2004
  • 92
  • Ponferrada
  • 2007
  • 89
  • Sta.Cruz.Tenerife
  • 2006-2009
  • 270
  • Santander
  • 2007
  • 95
  • Granada
  • 2006-2010
  • 300
  • Melilla
  • 2007
  • 99
  • Rural background
  • Period
  • N
  • Perdon
  • 2003
  • 55
  • Bemantes
  • 2001
  • 87
  • Endrinal
  • 2006-2007
  • 89
  • Monagrega
  • 1999
  • 132
  • Montseny
  • 2002-2009
  • 595
  • Arenosillo
  • 2007-2010
  • 41
  • Montsec
  • 2005-2011
  • 330
  • Izaña
  • 2005-2010
  • 258
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • ACTRIS SITES

Montseny Rural background site (750 masl) EUSAAR

  • 2002
  • High vol. Samplers PM10/2.5
  • GRIMM Laser Spectrometer 1107 PM10/2.5/1
  • 2010
  • SMPS EUSAAR
  • AURORA 3000 Nephelometer

Barcelona IDÆA CSIC Urban background site

  • Since 2002
  • High vo. samplers PM10/2.5/1
  • GRIMM Laser Spectrometer PM10/2.5/1
  • CPC –(DMA)
  • 2007
  • MAAP: multi angle absorption photometer
  • Gaseous pollutants monitors
  • 2010-2011
  • SMPS
  • Surface area NSAM
  • ACSM

Pyrenees: Montsec Remote background (1700 masl)

  • Montsec, Ager
  • 1700 masl
  • Measurements: PM1/PM2.5/PM10
  • O3
  • Meteo
  • Sampling PM10
  • October 2005
  • Since 2005
  • High vo. samplers PM10/
  • GRIMM Laser Spectrometer PM10/2.5/1
  • 2010
  • High vo. samplers PM1
  • MAAP: multi angle absorption photometer
  • Gaseous pollutants monitors
  • CPC –(DMA)
  • CIMEL

Canaries: Izaña Remote background (2367 masl)

  • Since 2002
  • High vo. samplers TSP/PM2.5
  • Online measurements PM10/2.5/1
  • 2007
  • High vo. samplers PM10/2.5/1
  • MAAP: multi angle absorption photometer
  • Gaseous pollutants monitors
  • CPC –DMA
  • APS
  • Leaching
  • Ion Chromat.:
  • NO3-, Cl-, SO4=
  • ColorimetryFIA and ICP-AES:
  • NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+,…
  • OC, EC
  • Components determined: 75-85% PM
  • SAMPLE TREATMENT and ANALYSIS
  • Bulk acidic digestion:
  • HF:NNO3-:HClO4
  • ICP-AES:
  • Al, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Fe, Ti, P
  • ICP-MS:
  • Li Be P Sc Ti V Cr Mn Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Cd Sn Sb Cs Ba La Ce Pr Nd Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Tm Yb Lu Hf Ta W Tl Pb Bi Th U
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • 1000
  • 100
  • 10
  • 0.01
  • 1
  • 0.1
  • * Querol et al. (2007)
  • Conc. Range in Urban areas of Spain*
  • Concentration range of metals in urban areas
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Mean annual
  • levels
  • Trace elements
  • PM10
  • 37 sites Spain
  • 1999-2009
  • (ng/m3)
  • TFMM Zurich 2011

  • Li, Ti, Ga, Rb, La, Ce, Nd
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Crustal related elements
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Crustal related elements
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Crustal related elements
  • Li, Ti, Ga, Rb, La, Ce, Nd
  • K: mineral; biomass combustion
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Crustal related elements
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Traffic related elements
  • Traffic: brake wear
  • Industrial activities
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Traffic related elements
  • PhD of F. Amato, CSIC
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Obres
  • Sortida Port
  • Ronda de Dalt
  • Ronda Litoral
  • Plaça Cerdà
  • Meridiana
  • Sb ( µg/g PM10)
  • Av. Diagonal
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Traffic related elements
  • Brake wear
  • Pyrite smelter
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Traffic related elements
  • Lead gasoline
  • Ceramic industry
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Traffic related elements
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Traffic related elements
  • Decrease of industrial emissions
  • Unlead gasoline
  • Oil combustion
  • 12th TFMM Zurich 2011

Metallurgy

  • Metallurgy
  • Oil combustion
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • Moreno T. et. al. (2008) Environmental Science and Technology
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • 12th TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • Ceramic: enamel
  • Cu-Sulphuric
  • Coal combustion
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • Metallurgy
  • Ceramic
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • Metallurgy
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements

Wind turbine

  • Wind turbine
  • Refinery
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
  • Metallurgy
  • Industry SiMn
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Combustion and industrial related elements
    • PM is a complex and sometimes reactive mixture of components and in many cases scientific tools are need to identify main sources of pollution
    • The speciation studies may allow a complete and detailed quantification of source apportionment
    • PM speciation at more than 35 sites in Spain for > 1year period: rural and urban background, urban-industrial and traffic sites
    • Spatial variability of major and trace metals: indicate major sources and anomalies
      • V and Ni (SO42-, NH4+, V, Ni) is the tracing group from oil combustion
      • V/Ni ratio could be a good tracer for shipping emissions
      • La/Ce ratio is a tracer for refinery equipped with zeolitic FCC
      • Coal combustion (As) traceable only in specific areas
      • Tire and brake wear emissions coupled with high traffic volumes bring relatively high Fe, Mn, Cu, Sb, Ba and Zn levels to urban agglomerations, in the past restricted to specific hotspots with low population (smelting, steel,….)
    • Clear decrease of concentrations of industrial related elements
  • Conclusions
  • TFMM Zurich 2011
  • Acknowledgements:
  • Ministry of the Environment of Spain, Ministry of Sciences and Innovation of Spain
  • Regional AQ monitoring networks: Generalitat Valenciana, Generalitat de Catalunya
  • Andalucía, Baleares, Canarias, Castilla-León, Castilla la Mancha, Euskadi, Extremadura, Galicia, Madrid, Murcia.
  • Thank you for your attention !
  • andres.alastuey@idaea.csic.es
  • xavier.querol@idaea.csic.es


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