Translation of realia, culture-bound words


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Translation of realia - Guljamol Shokuchkarova
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Translation of realia, culture-bound words

This article is devoted to know all about what is realia, how to render realias and culture-bound elements into a foreign language and types of realias.

Key word: realia, culture-bound word; equivalent-lacking word; translation
English language as the language of international communication may play the role of intellectual bridge and become a kind of intercultural guide in better understanding and communication. Different texts containing information about European countries, their traditions, life patterns, achievements in science and engineering are issued in English, which makes their adequate translation vitally important.
Despite the variety of the terms used in the linguistic literature, it should be noted that there is much in common between all of them. The most general term, in out opinion, is realia or non-equivalent vocabulary, understood as a special category of linguistic expressions nominating nationally-specific objects and notions of a certain nation, its lifestyle, culture, social and historical development peculiar to one linguoculture and not found in others.
The word ‘’realia" comes from medieval Latin, in which it originally meant "the real things". Currently, in the English language the word "realia" is usually used to denote objects or activities relating to the real life. However, the notion of realia in translation theory means cultural - bound words and expressions. which denote notions peculiar to one culture and non-existing in other cultures, therefore it is difficult, if possible at all to translate them into other languages. Culture - bound words do not have exact equivalents in other languages.
As the survey of the linguistic literature has shown, there are different:

• Ecology. Words in this category include geographical features specific to a particular culture: flora, fauna, land shaft, winds, islands, hills;


• Material culture: a) food; b) clothes; c) houses and towns; d) transport;
• Social culture: a) work; b) leisure;
• Organizations, customs, activities, procedures, concepts: a) political and
administrative; b) religious; c) artistic;

Other linguistics propose the following classification on the material


of American realia:

A. Household realia (house, clothes, food and drinks, households, transport,


communication, leisure, customs, currency and units of measurement, behavior.
B. Geographical realia (toponyms, names of shoreline features, varieties of
bays, straits, bays, the names of relief features, hydrographic names, political and economic, geographical realia relating to administrative-territorial division.
C. Flora (names of trees, shrubs, wild grass, flowers and their features);
D. Fauna (names of animals, birds, snakes, natural and mineral resources,
and features of their development);
E. Social and political realia state symbols, realia connected with the
constitution of the states, agencies, civil servants, the judiciary, state government and local government, elections, political parties and public organizations.
Reasons for using culture -bound words and realias can be various:
1) extralinguistic: lack of a similar thing in the target culture. 2) lexical: lack of a corresponding one-word name for a thing in the target language. 3) stylistic: difference in connotations
For example:

Realia of culture and art


A) music and dance
Eng.: blues, jazz, Limericks, ragtime, Auld Lang Sune, Maypole dance, Morris
dance, hoodening, swing, rock-and-roll.
Uzb; Alla, yor- yor , tanovar, baxshi, karnay-surnay, lapar, shashmaqom, Andijon polka

B) holidays and games


Eng: Queen's birthday, Christmas, Easter,
Thanksgiving Day, St. David's Day, Father's Day, Halloween, Simon says (game),
pitgun Limerick, Clementine, scavenger hunt (game).
Uzb: Navruz, Hosil bayrami, Chillak, Varrak o’yini, kurash, kupkari.

Geographical realia


Eng: prairie, fford siera, tidewater cordillera, canyon, sun belt, tornado, cyclone, tsunami; Olimpic mountains.
Uzb: adir, chimyon, zomin, to’qay, Hisor tog’lari.

Social and political realia:


Eng: Peace Corps; John birgh Society, Young Mer's Christian Association, White House, House of Common, House of Lords.
Uzb: yoshlar ittifoqi, qizil yarim oy jamiyati, Vazirlar Mahkamasi, Oliy Majlis.

One language into another in order to create an equivalent response from the receivers, as differences between cultures may cause more severe complications for the translator than differences in language structure.


Text translators are to be familiar with and understand the culture and history of the corresponding countries. They need to feel confident of the typical communication patterns, have good educational background and safe grasp of both the mother tongue and the foreign language.
Cultural context is obligatory when translaters have to translate the meaning of the original text. Popular-scientific text translation is impossible without cultural context. However, literary translation is not just recording of cultural and semantic elements by means of target language and culture.
Then a word for word translation may be problematic for the audience to comprehend it. In addition, translators may have to deal not only with lexical expressions, but also with problems of register, non-standard variants and regional varieties.
Culture -bound words are commonly translated in the target language through transcription, transliteration and calque translation.
Explication of culture-bound words can be made in commentaries (both in-text and after-text). The disadvantage of in-text notes is that they distract a receptor’s attention from the main text. However, after-text commentaries are not for a “lazy” reader. So, the most convenient, probably, are footnotes which save a reader’s time and effort.
For example: Andijon polka - (it is a type of dance in Uzbek nation, Andijon also is a region of Uzbekistan)
A Translator is required no only to be bilingual or
multilingual but also to be bicultural, or
multicultural, armed with good knowledge of as
many cultures as possible and to make culture familiar
to readers, by means of changing the Source Language culture into the Target Language culture in translation.

References:


1. Kurbanov D. A (2014) - An approach to culture-bound elements in translation
2. Ashurova D. U, Galiyeva R.M (2019) - Cultural linguistics
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