Tunnels terminology for underground structures adit galeri


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TUNNELS


TERMINOLOGY for UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

  • Adit.....................................galeri

  • Tunnel................................tünel

  • Subway..............................metro

  • Shaft...................................baca

  • Chamber............................oda

  • Portal.................................ana giriş veya çıkış

  • Pilot adit.............................yan galeri, pilot galerisi

  • Centre................................merkez, eksen

  • Face...................................ayna

  • Wall ~ site..........................yan, kenar, duvar

  • Floor...................................taban

  • Roof...................................tavan



  • Overbreak.............................aşırı sökülme

  • Excavated profile..................kazı profili

  • Natural archling....................doğal kemerlenme

  • Load......................................yük

  • Support.................................destek, iksa

  • Failure...................................yenilme, çökme

  • Gentle failure........................yavaş yenilme

  • Rock burst............................kaya patlaması

  • Squeezing ground................sıkışan zemin

  • Swelling ground....................şişen zemin

  • Clay-filled joint.......................kil dolgulu eklem

  • Long term stability.................uzun süreli duraylılık

  • Ground treatment..................zemin iyileştirmesi

  • Support before excavation....kazı öncesi destekleme



  • Jet grouted roof cover..............jet grouting ile iyileştirilmiş tavan örtüsü

  • Shotcrete initial lining..............püskürtme beton başlangıç çizgisi

  • Jet grouted floor cover............jet grouting ile iyileştirilmiş döşeme

  • Top heading............................kalot (Crown)

  • Invert.......................................stros (Bottom excavation)

  • Bench......................................üzengi çizgisi

  • Final concrete lining................sonuncu beton kaplama (nihai beton kaplama çizgisi)

  • SHIELD tunnelling method..............KALKAN Yöntemi

  • CUT & COVER tunnelling method....AÇ-KAPA Yöntemi

  • TBM (Full face ~ Total Boring Machine).....TÜM KESİT KAZI MAKİNASI



TERMINOLOGY for EXCAVATIONS of ROCKS & SOILS

  • DRILLING....................Sondalama

      • Hardness.........................Sertlik
      • Toughness.......................Dayanım – direnç
      • Abrasiveness...................Aşındırıcılık
      • Structure..........................Jeolojik yapı
      • Drilkling fluids..................Sondaj sıvısı
  • AUGERING..................Burgulama

  • MACHINE BORING.....Mekanize tünel açma

      • Total Boring Machine (TBM)
      • Full face excavation
  • BLASTING...................Patlatma



  • SCRAPING...................Kazıma (makinayla)

  • RIPPING.......................Kırarak kazıma

  • DIGGING......................Kazma

  • GROUND WATER........yeraltısuyu

      • Control of groundwater
      • Groundwater flow
      • Rate of flow
      • Volume of flow
      • Boundaries


TUNNEL DESCRIPTION

  • Made into natural material (rocks)

  • Empty inside

  • Carry the loads itself

  • Both ends are open to atmosphere

  • Generally horizontal

  • Thick walled structure looks like cylinder









SURFACE EXCAVATIONS

  • Deformation & failure



UNDERGROUND EXCAVATIONS

  • In Rock

  • In Sediment

      • Stability & Arching
      • Water
        • Dry tunnel...............above water table
        • Wet tunnel..............below water table
      • Gases
        • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
        • Carbon monoxide (CO)
        • Methane (CH4)
        • Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
        • Other gases


      • Gas bursts......................gaz patlaması
      • Rock falls........................kaya düşmesi
      • Rock bursts....................kaya fırlaması
      • Squeezing ground..........şişen – kabaran zemin
      • Temperature
      • Subsidence


EXPLORATION & INVESTIGATIONS RELATED of SLOPE STABILITY

  • Geomorphologic maping and preparation of longitudinal & cross sections

  • Geological maping & surveyings (aerial photographs)

  • Geophysical surveyings

  • Underground explorations, boreholes

  • Ground water surveyings

  • Laboratory tests

  • Model studies



SURFACE EXCAVATIONS

  • Permanent

  • Short term excavations



SUBSURFACE EXCAVATIONS

  • GEOLOGY

    • Soil profile or hard rock geology
    • Structure
    • Ground water (hydrogeology)
    • Stability


  • INVESTIGATIONS

    • Mapping (Topographic, geologic, etc...)
    • Geophysical surveying (especially seismic velocity of rocks)
    • Trial pits & boreholes
    • General and local stability analysis
    • Decide to excavation method




UNDERGROUND EXCAVATIONS

  • Adit, shaft, incline, large chamber

  • Tunnel

  • Subway ~ metro

  • Underpass

  • Shelter

  • Power house

  • Ware house, store, mining ...etc



GASES (can be lethal or burst)

  • Carbon monoxide (CO) 0.97 of air

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1.53 of air

  • Methane (CH4) 0.55 of air

  • (Highly explosive with air) marsh gas

  • Hydrogene sulphide (H2S) 1.19 of air

  • (Highly toxic and explosive)

  • Sulphur dioxide (SO2)



  • ROCK FALL

  • SQUEEZING GROUND (sand, silt, shale, clay)

  • ROCK BURST

  • BULKING (Increase in volume, 10-40%)



FACTORS EFFECTING EXCAVATION of ROCKS

  • Mineralogical composition of rocks

  • Texture & fabric

  • Petrographic features

  • Structure

  • Rock mass

  • Strike & dip of beds in relation to face of excavation

  • Intensity of tectonic disturbances

  • Degreee of weathering



RESISTANCE of ROCKS to EXCAVATION

  • Loose soils

  • Soil easy to spade (bel ile kazmak)

  • Soil easy to dig

  • Crumbling weak rocks (ufalamak)

  • Rocks easy to blast

  • Rocks difficult to blast

  • Rocks very difficult to blast



TUNNELLING METHODS



SHIELD TUNNELLING METHOD

  • This method involves the use of shield machine to drive the tunnels below the ground.

  • After completion of a work shaft, the shield machine is lowered into the shaft and assembled there before excavation and construction of the tunnels using precast concrete lining segments of about 1.2 meter width.

  • This construction method causes minimal disruption to traffic and the environment because all the work takes place below ground and the ground level environment is unaffected.





CUT and COVER TUNNELLING METHOD

  • This construction method, whereby the site is fully excavated, the structure built and then covered over, uses diaphragm walls as temporary retaining walls within the site area.

  • Step one :Construction of diaphragm walls, pin piles, and decking.

  • Step two :Excavation within the diaphragm walls, installing struts as work progresses.

  • Step three :Construction of permanent floor slabs and walls.

  • Step four : Fitting out the internal structures, backfilling, and reinstating the surface structures.





TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine)

  • Mechanical-support TBM

  • Compressed-air TBM

  • Slurry shield TBM

  • Earth pressure balance machine

  • Mixed-face shield TBM



1- Mechanical Support TBM

  • A mechanical-support TBM has a full-face cutterhead which provides face support by constantly pushing the excavated material ahead of the cutterhead against the surrounding ground.



2- Compressed-Air TBM

  • A compressed-air TBM can have either a full-face cutterhead or excavating arms. Confinement is achieved by pressurizing the air in the cutter chamber.



3- Slurry Shield TBM

  • A slurry shield TBM has a full-face cutterhead. Confinement is achieved by pressurizing boring fluid inside the cutterhead chamber.



4- Earth Pressure Balance Machine

  • An earth pressure balance machine has a full-face cutterhead. Confinement is achieved by pressurizing the excavated material in the cutterhead chamber.



5- Mix-Face Shield TBM

  • Mix-face shield TBMs have full-face cutterheads and can work inclosed or open mode and with different confinement techniques.



EFFECT of GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES to TUNNEL EXCAVATION

  • Effect of soil layers: horizontal, vertical and inclined layers have different kinds of loading conditions for tunnels.



  • Effect of faults: the relation between the fault slope direction and the tunnel direction, width of the fault zone, type and thickness of the fill material and the hydrostatic pressures in both sides of the fault are some problems in the tunnelling.



  • Tunnel excavations in the slopes: the discontinuities (layers, fissures) inclined inside or outside of the slope are very important regarding the stress and strength of the tunnel.



  • Effect of the folds: While tunnel is excavated in an area that contains folded rocks, different stresses and conditions may occur depending on the fold type.



CLASSIFICATION of ROCKS for TUNNELING PURPOSES



  • Classification of rocks for engineering purposes is needed in analyzing the project costs and to obtain an economic and reliable solution.

  • The classification of the rocks, that the tunnel will be constructed in, is first done by Terzaghi. But, it is too general and gives qualitative results.









URFA IRRIGATION TUNNEL







  • Consist of two concrete lined tunnels each of which is 7.62 m in diameter and 26.4 km in length discharging water from the reservoir of Atatürk Dam.



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