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Answers: Part 2 
2.1 Argument and discussion 
1 Discussion vocabulary 
(a) benefits/ advantages 
(b) drawbacks/ disadvantages 
(c) negative 
(d) advantages/ benefits 
(e) disadvantages/ drawbacks 
(f) benefit/ advantage 
2 Organisation 
Vertical: a simpler pattern suitable for short essays 
Horizontal: this allows a more complex approach in longer essays 
3 Practice A 
Possible ideas include: 

No time spent commuting to work 
Gives employees more flexibility 
Saves expensive office space 
Employees may feel isolated 
May not suit all employees 
Home may contain distractions 
Requires different management style 
Example outline with structure (a): 

(a) Introduction: reasons for growth of home-working: development in 
technology, demand for more flexible work patterns. 
(b) Drawbacks: Employees may feel isolated, be distracted by activities at home. 
May not suit all employees, some prefer more direct 
(c) Benefits: Companies need to provide less office space, less time spent on 
commuting = more work time, employees have more flexibility. 
(d) Discussion: 
Of benefit to certain employees in some roles, but 
necessary to have 
regular contact with colleagues and managers.
5 Counter-arguments 
The writer

s position is essentially critical of the way prisons work 
(Example answers) 
Your position 
It has been claimed that employees may waste time 
at home, 
but in practice there seems little evidence for this. 
Although home-working may save companies 
money by reducing the need for office space, 
employees need to have a well-equipped 
workspace in their home. 
6 Providing evidence 
1 Claims for `digital natives’
2. Arguments against
3. Writer’s viewpoint 

7 Practice B 
(Example answer) 
There has been considerable debate about the value of space exploration, in 
view of the high costs involved. Supporters such as Donnet-Kammel (2005) 
claim that this is a vital method of collecting data about the structure of the 
universe, and additionally point out that there have been many practical 
benefits arising from the space programme, such as satellite communication. 
The example of the space station is also given as an instance of the value of the 
research programme in encouraging international co-operation. 
In contrast, critics (e.g. Soroka, 2000) point to the huge costs involved in 
launching space probes, claiming that these resources would be better devoted 
to solving the serious earthly problems of hunger and disease. Furthermore, 
they argue that much of the space programme is effectively a testing ground for 
new weapons, such as missiles, and brings little benefit to ordinary people. In 
the context of the current economic crisis, a more critical approach is clearly 
needed in deciding which of those projects have real value. 
2.2 Cause and effect 
2 Practice A 
(Example answers) 
(b) Higher rates of literacy often lead to greater demand for secondary 
(c) As a result of constructing a new airport more tourists arrived. 
(d) Due to last year

s national election a new government was formed. 
(e) Installing speed cameras on main roads produces a fall in the number of 
fatal accidents. 
(f) Opening a new hospital in 2006 reduced infant mortality. 

3 Practice B 
(Example answers) 
(a) Increasing use of the internet for shopping has increased the number of 
delivery services. 
(b) The violent storms last week damaged power lines in the region. 
(c) The new vaccine for TB will result in lower child mortality.
(d) Building a high-speed railway line caused journey times to fall by 25 per 
(e) The serious motorway accident was due to thick fog. 
(f) The war of 1856

8 resulted from economic rivalry between the countries. 
(g) Earthquakes are often caused by movements in tectonic plates. 
(h) The rising prison population was due to a harsher sentencing policy. 
4 Practice C – Why women live longer 
(Other answers possible) 
because of/ due to/ owing to 
because/ since/ as 
consequently/ therefore/ which is why/ hence 
due to/ owing to/ because of 
because of/ due to/ owing to 
so/ therefore/ thus/ consequently 
5 Practice D 

(Example paragraph) 
An increase of 25 per cent in the price of oil would have numerous results. 
Firstly, it would lead to sharp rises in the cost of transport and freight, thus 
affecting the price of most goods. Clearly, businesses for which fuel was a 
significant proportion of their costs, such as airlines, would find it difficult to 
maintain profitability. Another consequence would be a reduction in oil 
consumption as marginal users switched to alternative fuels, such as gas, or 
made economies. There would also be increased investment in exploration for 
oil, as the oil companies attempted to increase supply, and this in turn would 
stimulate demand for equipment such as oil rigs. Finally, there would be a 
number of more localised effects, for instance a change in demand from larger 
to smaller and more economical vehicles. 
2.3 Cohesion 
2 Practice A 

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