What is Nationalism?


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What is Nationalism?

  • What is Nationalism?

  • Election of 1816 –

    • Candidates – Secretary of State James Monroe (R) vs. N.Y. Senator Rufus King (F)
    • Result – Monroe wins easily
      • Last time the Federalists have a presidential candidate
  • Era of Good Feelings – political harmony



Battle over West Florida

  • Battle over West Florida

  • First Seminole War

    • Spain’s attention focused on South America and Mexico
    • Seminoles raid towns across border into Georgia
    • Andrew Jackson – began seizing Spanish forts in Florida and fighting against Seminoles
  • Spain Decides to Deal

    • Adams’ ultimatum – Spain needed to control Seminoles or give up East Florida
    • Adams-Onis Treaty – gave East and West Florida to U.S.


Revolutions

  • Revolutions

    • FYI: Latin American colonies started to revolt against Spain around 1810. Revolutions were usually supported by U.S. citizens, many were inspired by American Revolution
    • Simon Bolivar – Venezuelan who fought in several revolutions in Latin America


A Warning

  • A Warning

    • Why was Monroe worried about European influence in Latin America?
    • Monroe Doctrine (1823)
      • U.S. would not interfere with any existing European colonies in Latin America, but would consider any attempt to regain or start new colonies as “dangerous to our peace and safety”
    • Reaction
    • How did the Monroe Doctrine represent a change in U.S. foreign policy?








Rebuilding After the War of 1812

  • Rebuilding After the War of 1812

    • Manufacturing – improved during war. Why?
    • Next step – find a balance between industry and agriculture
  • Weakness in the System

    • No National Bank – Government forced to deal with state banks
    • Money Problem – not enough gold or silver, so no loans
    • Transportation Problem – all trade over land
    • Reaction – combined effort btw business and gov’t


Henry Clay

  • Henry Clay

    • Lawyer and politician from Kentucky, became Speaker of the House in 1811
    • Later known as “The Great Compromiser”
  • Features of the American System

    • National Bank
    • Protective tariff
    • National transportation system
  • Quickly accepted by Congress





Tariff of 1816

  • Tariff of 1816

    • Protective measure – placed duty on most imported factory goods
    • What is the purpose for a protective tariff?
    • Reaction – supported by northern manufacturers and opposed by southern farmers


Transportation

  • Transportation

    • National Road – connected Cumberland, MD to Wheeling, WV and later Vandalia, IL
    • Erie Canal – 363-mile long canal linked Lake Erie to Hudson River, built by New York State
    • Canals in NJ – Morris Canal and Delaware and Raritan Canal – see other handouts for more info
    • Should such projects be aided by federal government or private business? Is this similar or different to today?






Bad roads – trails became mudpits in the wet

  • Bad roads – trails became mudpits in the wet

  • Canals and Steamboats

    • Midwest Problems – flatboats useless upstream
    • Canal Projects – Erie Canal reduced cost of moving goods between Buffalo and NYC by 90 percent, helped launch other canals
    • Fulton’s Folly – steamboat invented by Robert Fulton with Clermont in 1807
      • Capable of carrying heavy loads upstream, used on Mississippi River within 10 years




Locomotives – began in Europe and came to U.S. in 1830s

  • Locomotives – began in Europe and came to U.S. in 1830s

    • Advantages – could go anywhere tracks could be laid
    • Disadvantages – broke down often
    • Result – Continued to improve and more than $200 million was spent in 1840s




The Market Revolution

  • The Market Revolution

    • What was it? National markets were created because regions could import needed goods, only had to produce what was most profitable
    • Biggest gains felt in Midwest, where small towns now able to link to larger cities




General Information

  • General Information

  • West end: Philipsburg on the Delaware River

  • East end: Jersey City on the Hudson River

  • Length of main canal: 102.15 miles

  • # of inclined planes: 23

  • # of locks: 23 lift locks and 11 guard locks

  • http://shubie.chebucto.org/inclinemovie.htm

  • What are inclined planes? The boats that moved up or down a hill in “plane cars” on rails with the power supplied by water from the upper level of the canal – this water flowing through a “Scotch turbine” located deep underground.



General Information

  • General Information

  • What are locks?

    • They move boats up or down to another level of water. Water either enters or exits the lock so the boat can go on.
  • Time for a one way trip: 5 days

  • Power source: 2 mules

  • Total elevation change: 1,674 feet up and down (peak height of 914 feet)



Important Dates

  • Important Dates

  • December 31, 1824: Morris Canal and Banking Company chartered by the State of New Jersey

  • July 12, 1825: Construction starts near what is now Ledgewood

  • November 4, 1831: First trip from Newark to Phillipsburg

  • 1836: Jersey City extension completed - 11.75 miles

  • November 29, 1922: State of New Jersey takes control of the canal

  • Spring, 1924: Canal drained

  • George P. MacCulloch: Morristown businessman who conceived the idea of the canal





Other Information

  • Other Information

  • Cost: Original: $2,104,413 Enlargement: $1,700,000

  • Tonnage: 1845 - 58,259 tons

  • 1866 - 899,220 tons (maximum year)

  • Only prosperous period was 1860 – 1870 – Can you guess why?

  • Large Aqueducts: Little Falls Aqueduct across Passaic River – 80 foot span

  • Pompton River Aqueduct between Mountain View and Lincoln Park – 236 feet long, 9 stone piers



Why was the canal built?

  • Why was the canal built?

    • To deliver coal from Pennsylvania’s Lehigh Valley to New Jersey and New York
  • What else did the canal accomplish?

    • It gave a big boost to industry in the area (especially iron), and allowed the area to grow faster
    • Farm products, manufactured goods, raw materials and construction materials were also moved
  • Why did the canal eventually fail?

    • Railroads became a more efficient way of transporting bulk goods in the second half of the 19th century


















Main Canal: Bordentown on Delaware River to New Brunswick on Raritan River – 44 miles – 14 locks

  • Main Canal: Bordentown on Delaware River to New Brunswick on Raritan River – 44 miles – 14 locks

  • Dimensions: 75 feet wide x 8 feet deep (after 1851)

  • Locks: 24 feet wide x 220 feet long (after 1853)

  • Very simple design compared to Morris Canal – less than half as long and only 115 feet in elevation change – no inclined planes

  • Used by mule-towed canal boats, sailboats, steam tugs towing barges, freight boats, millionaires’ yachts and naval vessels

  • Opened in 1834, peak year was 1866, closed in 1932









Four Candidates –

  • Four Candidates –

    • John Quincy Adams (Mass.), Henry Clay (Ky.), William Crawford (Ga.) and Andrew Jackson (Tenn.)
  • Field Narrows –

    • Crawford gets sick and is unable to campaign but beats Clay in Electoral College
    • Result – House must decide winner – Why?
    • Why were there so many candidates?




“Corrupt Bargain” – Clay gives his support to Adams, when Adams wins Clay becomes Secretary of State, Jackson cries foul

  • “Corrupt Bargain” – Clay gives his support to Adams, when Adams wins Clay becomes Secretary of State, Jackson cries foul

    • Why did Clay give his support to Adams?
  • Adams’ term – Had good ideas but refused to compromise with Congress, remembered as a bad president







Andrew Jackson – “Old Hickory”, focused on running for President

  • Andrew Jackson – “Old Hickory”, focused on running for President

  • Democratic Party – name given later to supporters of Jackson, usually farmers, workers and frontier settlers; i.e. “the common man”



Jacksonian Democracy

  • Jacksonian Democracy

    • Name given to expansion of political participation regardless of class
      • Examples: Voters chose electors directly instead of state legislatures, expansion of voting rights led to even more new voters
    • Personality Clash – election was more about personalities than the issues (i.e. Was Jackson’s marriage illegal?)
    • Jackson Wins – 178-83 in Electoral College, 56 percent of popular vote
    • White House party out of control










Issue of American Indians –

  • Issue of American Indians –

    • What to do? Government decided they needed to be moved beyond American borders, especially those in Southeast
    • Why? American Indians supported British in War of 1812
    • Affected tribes – Cherokee (Georgia), Chickasaw, Choctaw (both Mississippi), Creek (Alabama) and Seminole (Florida)


Indian Removal Act

  • Indian Removal Act

    • Provided for relocation for all Indian nations east of Mississippi River to Indian Territory (now Okla.)
    • Why? To avoid conflict with white settlers (land)
  • Resistance in Court

    • Cherokee argued that they were a foreign nation
    • Worcester v. Georgia (1831) – the states had limited power over Cherokee; federal government needed to protect Indian rights
    • Aftermath – Ruling was ignored, Cherokee forced to move west


Trail of Tears (1838) –

  • Trail of Tears (1838) –

    • What was it? Name given to 800-mile journey that federal troops forced Cherokee to make to Indian Territory
    • About 4,000 of 18,000 Cherokee died on the trip




Tariff of Abominations –

  • Tariff of Abominations –

    • What was it? 1828 tariff that doubled rates for certain imports
    • Why were many southerners upset?
  • Doctrine of Nullification –

    • Written by John C. Calhoun in an anonymous essay
    • Based on Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions by Jefferson and Madison
    • Do you remember from Chapter 6 what it said?


South Carolina Crisis –

  • South Carolina Crisis –

    • Henry Clay attempted to negotiate a compromise
    • South Carolina nullified two tariffs, threatened secession if government attempted to collect
    • Calhoun resigns as Vice President
    • Jackson’s warning – Bloodshed dealt will be dealt with harshly
    • Result – Calhoun urges South Carolina to accept a new compromise tariff in 1833
      • Sectionalism becomes more of a problem


Election of 1836 –

  • Election of 1836 –

    • Jackson’s VP and handpicked successor Martin van Buren becomes President
    • Senate had to choose VP, only time in history
  • Whig name – taken from Whig Party that had opposed King in Britain, called Jackson “King Andrew”

    • Why “King Andrew”?






Election of 1840

  • Election of 1840

    • Nominees – war hero William Henry Harrison (W) vs. Van Buren (D)
    • Economic crisis practically guaranteed Whig victory
    • Reliance on slogans –
      • “Tippecanoe and Tyler too”, “Van, Van he’s a used up man”
    • Result – Harrison wins easily but dies after one month, shortest term ever
    • John Tyler becomes first VP to take over





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