Which of the following was a serious constitutional question after the Civil War?


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Which of the following was a serious constitutional question after the Civil War?

  • Which of the following was a serious constitutional question after the Civil War?

  • the restoration of the power of the federal judiciary

  • the legality of the national banking system

  • the political and legal status of the former Confederate states

  • the relationship between the United States and Britain

  • the proposed annexation of Colombia



“With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and his orphan - to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”

  • “With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in; to bind up the nation's wounds; to care for him who shall have borne the battle, and for his widow and his orphan - to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace, among ourselves, and with all nations.”

  • Abraham Lincoln  Source: March 4, 1865 - Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address



“I have never desired bloody punishments to any extent, even for the sake of example. But there are punishments quite as appalling and longer remembered, than death. They are more advisable, because they would reach a greater number. Strip the proud nobility of their bloated estates; reduce them to a level with plain republicans; send them forth to labor, and teach their children to enter the workshops or handle the plow, and you will thus humble the proud traitor.”

  • “I have never desired bloody punishments to any extent, even for the sake of example. But there are punishments quite as appalling and longer remembered, than death. They are more advisable, because they would reach a greater number. Strip the proud nobility of their bloated estates; reduce them to a level with plain republicans; send them forth to labor, and teach their children to enter the workshops or handle the plow, and you will thus humble the proud traitor.”

  • By Radical Republican Congressman Thaddeus Stevens



It is plain that an indefinite or permanent exclusion of any part of the country from representation must be attended by a spirit of disquiet and complaint. It is unwise and dangerous to pursue a course of measures which will unites a very large section of the country against another section of the country, however much the latter may preponderate. 

  • It is plain that an indefinite or permanent exclusion of any part of the country from representation must be attended by a spirit of disquiet and complaint. It is unwise and dangerous to pursue a course of measures which will unites a very large section of the country against another section of the country, however much the latter may preponderate. 

  • Andrew Johnson



“[T]he most soul-sickening spectacle that America had ever been called upon to behold. Every principle of the old American polity was here reversed. In place of government by the most intelligent and virtuous part of the people for the benefit of the governed, here was government by the most ignorant and vicious part of the population for the benefit— the vulgar, materialistic, brutal benefit—of the governing set.”

  • “[T]he most soul-sickening spectacle that America had ever been called upon to behold. Every principle of the old American polity was here reversed. In place of government by the most intelligent and virtuous part of the people for the benefit of the governed, here was government by the most ignorant and vicious part of the population for the benefit— the vulgar, materialistic, brutal benefit—of the governing set.”

  • John W. Burgess, Reconstruction and the Constitution, 1866-1876 (New York: Scribners, 1902), 263-64.





10% Plan

  • 10% Plan

  • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8, 1863)

  • Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South.

  • He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction.

  • Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers.

  • When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election had taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized



1864  “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR

  • 1864  “Lincoln Governments” formed in LA, TN, AR

    • “loyal assemblies”
    • They were weak and dependent on the Northern army for their survival.


Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).

  • Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an “iron clad” oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).

  • Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials.

  • Enacted specific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties.

  • Lincoln “pocket vetoes” the bill















Lincoln assassinated

  • Lincoln assassinated

  • Andrew Johnson becomes President

  • Southern Democrat

  • Wants a quick and easy reconciliation



the Black codes

  • the Black codes

  • designed to give whites almost complete control over former slave

    • excluded blacks from voting
    • testifying in court against whites
    • banned inter-racial marriage
    • defined unemployed black as vagrant






Civil Rights Act of 1866

  • Civil Rights Act of 1866

  • declared blacks citizens of the United States and granted the federal government the power to intervene in state affairs to protect the rights of citizens.

  • Vetoed by Johnson









The 14th Amendment

  • The 14th Amendment

  • made anyone born in the United States (or naturalized) automatically a citizen entitled to all the "privileges and immunities" guaranteed by the Constitution, including equal protection under the law by both state and national governments



Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision.

  • Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision.

  • Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments.

  • In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making.



Military Reconstruction Act

  • Military Reconstruction Act

  • Restart Reconstruction in the 10 Southern states that refused to ratify the 14th Amendment.

  • Divide the 10 “unreconstructed states” into 5 military districts.



Command of the Army Act

  • Command of the Army Act

  • The President must issue all Reconstruction orders through the commander of the military.

  • Tenure of Office Act

  • The President could not remove any officials [esp. Cabinet members] without the Senate’s consent, if the position originally required Senate approval.

  • Designed to protect radical members of Lincoln’s government.

  • Constitutional?



Official reason:

  • Official reason:

  • He violated the Tenure of Office Act

  • “Treason, bribery, or other high crimes and Misdemeanors”

  • off the hook by one vote



Carpetbaggers

  • Carpetbaggers

    • white Northerners who had relocated to the South
  • Scalawags

    • Southern Republicans


The Fifteenth Amendment





Ku Klux Klan

  • Ku Klux Klan

  • Formed in 1866

  • Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871







Grant’s Presidency

  • Grant’s Presidency

  • 1868-1876

  • Corruption and scandal

  • Sometimes called the “era of good STEALINGS”



Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption.

  • Grant presided over an era of unprecedented growth and corruption.

  • Credit Mobilier Scandal.

  • Whiskey Ring.

  • The “Indian Ring.







"Redeemers"

  • "Redeemers"

  • Democrats managed to regain eight of the former Confederate states by 1875

  • Only South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida had Republican state governments by 1876.



Rutherford B. Hayes

  • Rutherford B. Hayes

  • Contested election





Compromise of 1877

  • Compromise of 1877

    • Hayes promised not to use federal troops to uphold the few remaining Republican governments in the South.
    • Reconstruction ends





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