World Bank Document


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writing materials, 2 5327862001035117218, 10 sinf olmpiada ona tili, Аннотация 26.04.21й (1), 2 5425097999032255319, синтаксис, O‘zbekistonning eng yangi tarixi, A.Navoi, buklet, jihozlar ro\'yxati - копия, urok russkogo yazyka po teme 2, 1амалий, 8 Класс Информатика и ИТ, Boshlang\'ich ta\'lim metod birlashmasi Yillik ish reja va yig\'ilish
Isabel Sánchez García
is a consultant at the World Bank, specializing in 
the implementation of innovation and quality programs in Latin America 
and in East and Central Europe. She holds a PhD in Economics from the 
University of California, San Diego, and was Professor of Economics at the 
University of Rochester (Rochester, New York, USA) and at the Univer-
sidad Carlos III (Madrid, Spain). As Chief of Staff for Spain’s Vice-Min-
ister for Science of Technology, she participated actively in the creation 
of that ministry and helped develop new policies supporting research and 
development and technology adoption. She has also been a member of 
Spain’s Antitrust Commission and Energy Regulatory Agency. 
Makhtar Diop,
a Senegalese national, is Sector Director for Finance, 
Private Sector and Infrastructure, in the Latin America and Caribbean 
Region at the World Bank, leading the Bank’s assistance to Latin Ameri-
can countries in strengthening and deepening their fi nancial sectors, 
improving their business environments, and increasing the fi nancing and 
performance of their infrastructure sectors. He has also served as country 
director for Kenya, Eritrea, and Somalia. Prior to the World Bank, he 
worked at the International Monetary Fund and held various positions in 
banking and fi nance. He has also served as Senegal’s Minister of Economy 
and Finance. Mr. Diop undertook his PhD studies in economics at the 
University of Nottingham (UK) and holds a Master of Science degree in 
Economics from the University of Warwick (UK) and a Master’s degree 
in Finance from Ecole Supérieure Libre des Sciences Commerciales 
Appliquées, Paris (France). 


Abbreviations
ABNT 
Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas
Brazilian 
Technical 
Standards 
Association
AENOR 
Asociación Española de Normalización y Certifi cación
Spanish Association for Standardization and Certifi cation
AMPS 
Advanced Mobile Phone System
ANCE 
Asociación de Normalización y Certifi cación
Association for Standards and Certifi cation (Mexico)
ANSI 
American National Standards Institute
APEC Asia-Pacifi c Economic Cooperation
APLAC Asia-Pacifi c Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation
ASEAN 
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
BIPM 
Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
International Bureau of Weights and Measures
CAN Comunidad 
Andina
Andean 
Community
CDMA Code 
Division 
Multiplexing 
Access
CEM 
Centro Español de Metrología
Spanish Metrology Center
CEN 
Comité Européen de Normalisation
European Committee for Standardization
CENAM 
Centro Nacional de Metrología 
National Metrology Center (Mexico)
xxiii


CENELEC 
Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique 
European Committee for Electrotechnical 
Standardization
CFE 
Comisión Federal de Electricidad
Federal Electricity Commission (Mexico)
CGPM 
Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures
General Conference on Weights and Measures
CIPM 
Comité International des Poids et Mesures
International Committee of Weights and Measures
CIS 
Commonwealth of Independent States
CITAC
Cooperation on International Traceability in Analytical 
Chemistry
CMM Capability 
Maturity 
Model
CODEX Codex 
Alimentarius 
Commission
COMPITE
Comité Nacional de Productividad e Innovación 
Tecnológica
National Committee on Productivity and Technological 
Innovation (Mexico)
CONACYT Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología 
National Council on Science and Technology (Mexico)
COPANT 
Comisión Panamericana de Normas Técnicas
Pan American Standards Commission
CORFO 
Corporación de Fomento de la Producción
Chilean Economic Development Agency 
CSRM 
Committee on Standards-Related Measures (of NAFTA)
CYGA 
Calidad y Gestión Ambiental
Quality and Environmental Management Program 
(Colombia)
DGN 
Dirección General de Normas 
General Bureau of Standards (Mexico)
DTI 
Department of Trade and Industry (UK)
EA European 
Co-operation 
for 
Accreditation
EFTA European 
Free 
Trade 
Association
EMA 
Entidad Mexicana de Acreditación
Mexican 
Accreditation 
Body
EMS environmental 
management 
systems
EN European 
standard
ENAC 
Entidad Nacional de Acreditación 
National 
Accreditation 
Body 
(Spain)
ETSI 
European Telecommunications Standardization Institute
xxiv Abbreviations


EU European 
Union
EUROMET European Collaboration in Measurement Standards
FCC 
Federal Communications Commission
FDI foreign 
direct 
investment
FOMIPYME Fondo Colombiano para la Modernización y el Desarrollo 
Tecnológico de las Micro, Medianas y Pequeñas Empresas
Colombian Fund for the Modernization and 
Technological Development of Micro, Small and Medium 
Enterprises
GDP 
gross domestic product
GNP 
gross national product
GSM 
Global System for Mobile Communications
HACCP 
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
IAAC InterAmerican 
Accreditation 
Cooperation
IAF International 
Accreditation 
Forum
ICONTEC 
Instituto Colombiano de Normas Técnicas y Certifi cación
Colombian Institute for Technical Standards and 
Certifi cation
IEC International 
Electrotechnical 
Commission
ILAC International 
Laboratory 
Accreditation 
Cooperation
INDECOPI
Instituto Nacional de Defensa de la Competencia y de la 
Protección de la Propiedad Intelectual
National Institute for the Defense of Competition and 
the Protection of Intellectual Property (Peru)
INEN 
Instituto Ecuatoriano de Normalización
Ecuadorian Standardization Institute
ININ 
Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares
National Nuclear Research Institute (Mexico)
INMETRO
Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e 
Qualidade Industrial
National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and 
Industrial Quality (Brazil)
INN 
Instituto Nacional de Normalización
National Standardization Institute (Chile)
INTI 
Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial 
National Institute of Industrial Technology (Argentina)
IRAM 
Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certifi cación
Argentine Institute of Standardization and Certifi cation
IRCA 
International Register of Certifi cated Auditors
ISO 
International Organization for Standardization
Abbreviations xxv


IT information 
technology
ITU International 
Telecommunication 
Union
KAB Korea 
Accreditation 
Board
KAS Korea 
Accreditation 
System
KATS 
Korean Agency for Technology and Standards
KOLAS Korea 
Laboratory 
Accreditation 
Scheme
KOSGEB
Small and Medium Industry Development Organization 
(Turkey) 
KRISS 
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science
LAC 
Latin America and the Caribbean
Mercosur 
Mercado Común del Sur
Southern Common Market
MLA 
multilateral recognition arrangement
MRA 
mutual recognition arrangement or agreement
NAFTA 
North American Free Trade Agreement
NMI 
national metrology institute
NMT Nordic 
Mobile 
Telephone
NWML 
National Weights and Measures Laboratory (UK)
OAA 
Organismo Argentino de Acreditación
Argentine 
Accreditation 
Bureau
OAE 
Organismo de Acreditación Ecuatoriano
Ecuadorian 
Accreditation 
Body
OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and 
Development
OHSAS 
Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series
OIML 
Organisation Internationale de Métrologie Légale
International Organization of Legal Metrology 
PABCO 
Planteles de Animales Bajo Certifi cación Ofi cial 
Animal Premises Under Offi cial Control
PAC Pacifi c Accreditation Cooperation
PDA 
personal digital assistant
PEMEX Petróleos 
Mexicanos
Mexican Petroleum Company
PNAC 
Programa Nacional de Aseguramiento de la Calidad
National Program for Quality Assurance (Colombia)
ProCal 
Programa de Normas y Acreditación de la Calidad
Standards and Quality Accreditation Program 
(Argentina)
QMS 
quality management systems
xxvi Abbreviations


QSP 
Centro da Qualidade, Segurança e Produtividade
Center for Quality, Safety and Productivity (Brazil)
R&D research 
and 
development
RTA 
regional trade agreement
SADC 
Southern African Development Community
SADCA
Southern African Development Community Accreditation
SADCAS
Southern African Development Community 
Accreditation Service
SEI 
Software Engineering Institute
SENA 
Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje
National Training Service (Colombia)
SERNAC 
Servicio Nacional del Consumador 
National Consumer Service (Chile)
SIC 
Superintendencia de Industria y Comercio 
Superintendency of Industry and Commerce (Colombia)
SIM 
Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia
InterAmerican Metrology System
SME 
small and medium enterprise
SPG 
standards preparatory group (Turkey)
SPI software-process 
improvement
STQC 
Standardization, Testing, and Quality Certifi cation 
TBT 
Technical Barriers to Trade (of the WTO)
TC 
Technical Committee (of the ISO)
TNC transnational 
corporation
TQM total 
quality 
management
TSE 
Turkish Standards Institution
TSG 
Traditional Specialty Guaranteed
TÜBITAK Scientifi c and Technical Research Council of Turkey
TÜRKAK 
Turkish Accreditation Agency
UK United 
Kingdom
UKAS United 
Kingdom 
Accreditation 
Service
UME 
National Metrology Institute (Turkey)
UMTS 
Universal Mobile Telephone System
UNE-EN ISO Spanish national standard
WTO World 
Trade 
Organization
Note: All dollar amounts are U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.
Abbreviations xxvii



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