World Bank Document


Index 281 Citations to material in the endnotes are  italicized. A


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Index
281
Citations to material in the endnotes are 
italicized.
A
accreditation, 14, 66, 69–74, 204–207 
activities, 173, 177–180, 243–246 
budget, 248
confi dence, 82 
costs, 71, 225, 248 
establishing, 70–71
function of, 69–70 
governance and autonomy, 172–175, 
265n.1
government support, 205–207
guidance, 70 
institutions, 14, 69–70, 70–74, 
171–177, 204, 219, 246–248
international integration, 180–182
international recognition, 92–94, 207
Latin America, 171–184
legal status, 172
markets, 205–206
Mexico, 219, 224–228 
organization, 171–172, 204–205, 244, 
245, 246
policy recommendations, 248–249 
private sector participation, 173
process, 71
regional cooperation, 72
resources, 175–177
scope, 70 
staff, 174, 247
time required, 176–177
Turkey, 234–235, 243–249, 259
acquis communautaire, 242
adaptation, 43–44 
costs, 33, 261n.4
advocacy, 214, 202
Africa, horticultural market, 44, 45
American National Standards Institute 
(ANSI), 57–59
APEC, 142, 144, 265n.4
application programming interfaces 
(APIs), 25–26
Argentina
certifi cation costs, 112
quality promotion initiatives, 199
assessment
second-party, 64, 65
third-party, 64, 65, 68
assessors, 175
auditors, 161, 213
automobile sector, 157–158 
certifi cation, 158, 265nn.1,2
autonomy
accreditation institutions, 172–175, 
265n.1
standards-setting institutions, 131–132
B
best practices, accreditation bodies, 181
Bolivia, leather PDA covers, 7
Brazil
certifi cation, 109, 112
footwear, 5, 43
quality promotion programs, 193–194
British internationalization, 89
budget, 60, 202
business environment indicator, 167 
certifi cation rates and, 168


282 Quality Systems and Standards for a Competitive Edge
buyer-driven value chains, 41–42, 42–43, 
44–45
C
calibration, 10, 68–69, 189–190, 262n.5
certifi cates, 95
demand for, 212–215
laboratories, 13, 92, 178–179, 180, 
263n.6
Mexico, 219, 222
number offered, 190
Turkey, 236
see also measurement; testing
Canada, legal metrology, 79–80
Center for Quality, Safety and 
Productivity (QSP), 193–194
certifi cation, 10, 65–68, 82, 262n.1
accreditation, 204
barriers, internal fi rm-level, 105–114 
benefi ts, 66, 68, 228
bodies, 12, 65, 92, 262n.2, 263n.6
consulting services, external, 109
costs, 110–113, 264n.3
demand for, 212–215 
fi nancial performance and, 102–103
fi rm performance and, 108
market share, 160
Mexico, 219, 228–232 
objectivity, 66, 69, 73–74
organizational performance and, 
100–102, 264n.2
performance, 153–155
policy recommendations, 243
principles, 65–66
prior, certifi cation and, 120
quality, 160
services, 241–243, 159–161, 266n.6
time-series studies, 101–120 
Turkey, 233, 234, 236–243, 259,
266nn.1,4,5
why fi rms get certifi ed, 99–100 
certifi ed pesticide-residue tests, 47
CERTIpyme, 196
Chile
quality promotion initiatives, 198–199
wine market, 5
Chilean Economic Development Agency 
(CORFO), 198–199
China, certifi cation and export 
performance, 106–107
Code of Good Practice, 84, 263n.3
coffee, quality Uganda, 20–21
Colombia, quality promotion programs
CYGA, 194–195
other, 195–196 
Colombian Fund for the Modernization 
and Technological Development 
of Micro, Small and Medium 
Enterprises (FOMIPYME), 
195, 196
Committee for Standardization (CEN), 
87, 89
Committee on Standards-Related 
Measures (CSRM), 146
communication, 214
compatibility 16–17, 18, 20–21
competition, 3–4, 6, 203, 216
constraints to, 25–26
increased, 21–24 
ISO 9000 and, 99–105
mobile phones, fi rst- and second-
generation, 22–23
quality and, 4
compliance, 215
evaluation, 63–80
Mexico, 226
concept modeling, 126
confi dentiality, certifi cation bodies, 66
confl icts of interest, 73
Conformity Assessment Framework, 
63–80
conformity assessment, 10, 81–96, 
236–237
incompatible procedures, 81–82
Mexico, 230, 232 cost, 229
consolidation, national quality system, 
203–204
Consorcio del Jamón Serrano Espanõl, 
quality control, 67
coordination failures, 214
COPANT, 144–145, 265n.5
costs, 19, 80
accreditation, 71, 225, 248
adaptation, 33, 261n.4
certifi cation, 68, 110–113, 264n.3
conformity evaluation, 229 
consulting, 112
Latin America, 139
measurement activities, 27
metrology, 78, 80
Mexico, 229
reductions, 24


Index 283
regional coordination, 91
registration, 112–113 
standards, 53, 90, 139
trade, 34
credibility, metrology, 95
cultural factors, certifi cation and, 123, 
125–126
D
decentralized approach, 202
de facto standards, 51
de jure standards, 52
disputation, legal metrology and, 79
diversifi cation, 6
duplication, certifi cation and testing, 82
E
economic environment
certifi cation and, 119–126
ISO 9000 diffusion and, 165–170
economic growth, standards and, 28–32
economies of scale, 17
education
certifi cation and, 120–126
ISO 9000 diffusion and, 170
effi ciency, productive and innovative, 
17–18
EMA, 225–227
engineering tolerances, 76
environment, 79
environmental management systems 
(EMSs), 182
certifi cates, 149–151
equivalence, 83
EurepGAP certifi cation, 47, 48
European Union
food safety 36
grapes, 46
market, access to, 236–237
New Approach directives and 
Turkey, 242
standards, 88–89
evaluation, 203–204, 215
export performance
certifi cation and, 105, 106–107
ISO 9000 diffusion, 163–165, 265n.3
exports
certifi cation and, 162
GDP and, 3, 162 
quality and, 40
F
feedback, 20–21
fees. See costs
fi nancial performance, certifi cation and, 
102–103
fi nancial resources, limited, 109–113
fi rst-party assessment, 64
fl exibility, 83, 262n.2
food standards, 35–36
footwear, 5, 43
foreign bodies 
accreditation, 241, 266n.7
certifi cation, 159–160, 181
foreign direct investment, 163
foreign markets, standards and, 35
foreign multinationals, 119, 264n.6
foreign technical regulations, 34
formal standards, 52
functional upgrading, 42
funding, standardization, Latin America, 
132–134
G
GDP, exports and, 3, 162
Genera Bureau of Standards (DGN), 129
Germany
economic growth, 31–32
standards, 36, 38
globalization, 2, 216
global production networks, 6
governance, standards-setting institutions, 
131–132
government, 8 
accreditation, 205–207
agency or unit, single, 202
certifi cation, 119, 120, 243
fi scal functions, 79
metrology, 208
regulations, 119
role, 213–215, 119, 243
standardization, 54–56
standards bodies, 60
Turkey, 243
withdrawal, 202
grapes, market requirements, 46–49
H
ham, cured, 67
harmonization, 36, 37, 40, 83, 88–89, 
89–90


284 Quality Systems and Standards for a Competitive Edge
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control 
Point (HACCP), 195
health, 79
health care, metrology, 77
horticultural value chain, upgrading, 
44–45
human capital, 202
accreditation, 205, 247
metrology, 208
standards, 135
I
incentives, 213–214
INDECOPI, 129, 264nn.1,2
independence, certifi cation bodies, 66
India
grapes, market requirements, 
46–49
software, certifi cation, 120–126
indirect network externalities, 20–21
industrialization, 41, 261n.7
industry
consortia, 51
standards and, 39
information, 16, 55
asymmetries, 19
certifi cation and, 124
imperfect, 19
program, 202
provision, 28
infrastructure, metrology, 78
innovation
constraints, 24–25
diffusion of, 18
growth and, 31
standardization and, 28
inspection, 10, 68–69, 219, 228–232
bodies, 13, 92, 179, 263n.6
Mexico, 219
number of accreditation, 179
Turkey, 236–243 
institutional environment
certifi cation rates and, 169
indicator, 168 
ISO 9000 diffusion and, 167–168 
InterAmerican Accreditation 
Cooperation (IAAC), 
182, 207
InterAmerican Metrology System 
(SIM), 191
interchangeability 16, 261n.1
International Organization for 
Standardization (ISO), 83, 84, 86, 
92, 93, 263n.7
guides and standards for accreditation 
bodies, implementation, 182
ISO 9000, 97–126
barriers, internal fi rm-level, 105–114 
benefi ts, 99
certifi cations, 161
competitive advantage and, 99–105 
diffusion, 114–126, 162–170
fi rm size, 166
function of, 97–99
global adoption, 98
Latin America and the Caribbean, 
149–150, 151–153
manufacturing, 156
Mexico, 166, 231, 232
regional shares, 114
role, 103–105
standardized, 155, 156 
Turkey, 237–241, 243, 266nn.4,5
ISO 14000, 155
Latin America and the Caribbean, 
150, 151–153
manufacturing and services, 156 
number, 157
ISO/TS 16949:2002, 158, 265n.1
standards development, participation 
in, 142
International Accreditation Forum (IAF), 
93, 181, 182, 207
membership, 92
International Bureau of Weights and 
Measures (BIPM), 191
International Committee of Weights and 
Measures (CIPM), 95–96, 251,
267n.10
international cooperation, 84–91, 
182–184
International Electrotechnical 
Commission (IEC), 83, 84, 86, 92, 
93, 263n.7
international integration, 81–96, 180–182
accreditation, 207
Latin America, 139–147
metrology, 209
standardization, 211
International Laboratory Accreditation 
Cooperation (ILAC), 93, 181, 
182, 207
membership, 92


Index 285
international laboratory comparisons, 
191–192
International Organization of Legal 
Metrology (OIML), 96, 

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