Auxiliary verb abbreviated aux

List of auxiliaries in English

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List of auxiliaries in English

A list of verbs that (can) function as auxiliaries in English is as follows:


The status of dare (not)need (not), and ought (to) is debatable[13] and the use of these verbs as auxiliaries can vary across dialects of English. If the negative forms can'tdon'twon't, etc. are viewed as separate verbs (and not as contractions), then the number of auxiliaries increases. The verbs do and have can also function as full verbs or as light verbs, which can be a source of confusion about their status. The modal verbs (cancouldmaymightmustshallshouldwillwould, and dareneed and ought when included) form a subclass of auxiliary verbs. Modal verbs are defective insofar as they cannot be inflected, nor do they appear as gerunds, infinitives, or participles.

The following table summarizes the auxiliary verbs in standard English and the meaning contribution to the clauses in which they appear. Many auxiliary verbs are listed more than once in the table based upon discernible differences in use.

Auxiliary verb

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