Born in Dublin, Ireland. Born in Dublin, Ireland


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Born in Dublin, Ireland.

  • Born in Dublin, Ireland.

  • At 19, he is employed by Sir William Temple a powerful English statesman.

  • Tutors 8 year old Esther “Stella” Johnson.

  • Develops Ménière’s Syndrome, a disturbance of the inner ear.

  • 1694: Deacon and later Priest in Dublin


Falls in love with Jane “Varina” Waring.

  • Falls in love with Jane “Varina” Waring.

  • 1696: returns to Temple’s service. Temple dies in1699. Series of clerical jobs in Ireland.

  • 1704: Tale of the Tub: satire on corruptions in religion and learning. Also Battle of the Books, a mock-epic on the debate between Ancients and Moderns.



1707: Involved with The Tatler. Adopts pseudonym Issac Bickerstaff.

  • 1707: Involved with The Tatler. Adopts pseudonym Issac Bickerstaff.

  • 1720: Involved with Irish causes.

  • 1729: A Modest Proposal

  • 1726: Gulliver’s Travels

  • 1742: establishes site for insane asylum (St. Patrick’s Hospital)



makes a subject appear ridiculous (may invite scorn, contempt, indignation, along with amusement)

  • makes a subject appear ridiculous (may invite scorn, contempt, indignation, along with amusement)

  • satiric vs. comic (satire is amusing though serious; attacks an individual or a “type”; comic evokes amusement, usually through farce)

  • - satire looks to correct a perceived problem (comedy does not)



satire as intellectual (evidence of the intellect of the writer)

  • satire as intellectual (evidence of the intellect of the writer)

    • - how does the heroic couplet work as part of satire?
  • satire as corrective (it can turn the subject’s own self-centeredness against itself; only through satire can the subject be reached)



role of the speaker: mock-heroic (unaware of his own ridiculousness)

  • role of the speaker: mock-heroic (unaware of his own ridiculousness)

  • Mac Flecknoe = indirect satire (versus direct personal address by a competent narrator/speaker)

  • wit:

  • - suggests an element of the comic through verbal play

  • - wit as verbal dexterity; wit connects the intellect with the use of language



Paints a distorted verbal picture of part of the world in order to show its true moral (as opposed to merely its physical) nature.

  • Paints a distorted verbal picture of part of the world in order to show its true moral (as opposed to merely its physical) nature.

    • – May be in verse or prose form.
    • Relies on an a priori agreement regarding moral behavior.


Relies on irony, wit, and sometimes sarcasm.

  • Relies on irony, wit, and sometimes sarcasm.

  • 18th-Century satire: Attempts to be wise, smooth, urbane, and skeptical.

    • – The prose satiric tone is often harsh, sharp, and sometimes downright nasty.


  • Ironic Iraqi dinar: presents a distorted picture in order to show true moral nature of US “interest” in Iraq. A priori moral assumption: U.S. president should NOT be affiliated with Iraqi money.



Direct: relies on a first-person narrator (the adversarius)

  • Direct: relies on a first-person narrator (the adversarius)

    • – Horatian: pokes fun at human folly. More comedic, less serious.
    • – Juvenalian: relies on dignified denunciations. Often more politically focused.
  • Indirect: satiric effect is achieved through

  • modes of presentation & representation, not

  • direct condemnation.

  • • Swift combines the two types and is more

  • Juvenalian than Horatian.

  • – Relies on your ability to understand irony.



Indirect: satiric effect is achieved through

  • Indirect: satiric effect is achieved through

  • modes of presentation & representation, not

  • direct condemnation.

  • Swift combines the two types and is more

  • Juvenalian than Horatian.

    • – Relies on your ability to understand irony.


Objectivity

  • Objectivity

    • – Science is the paradigm for all true knowledge.
  • Right use of reason

  • Reason is independent of self / context

    • – complex connections between reason, autonomy, and freedom.


Language is “transparent

  • Language is “transparent

  • These ideas of the Enlightenment enable the irony in 18th-century satire.



Irony: a contradiction or incongruity between appearance and / or expectation.

  • Irony: a contradiction or incongruity between appearance and / or expectation.

  • Sarcasm: intentional derision, generally directed at another person, and intended to hurt.

    • Can jeeringly state the opposite of what is meant


Was Irish.

  • Was Irish.

  • Religious Biography

  • So, would this man seriously suggest eating Irish babies?



Narrative “I”

  • Narrative “I”

    • – Self-effacing but…. “As to my own part…” (484).
  • Irony

    • – Title: is this a “modest” proposal? (485)
  • Language / resources

    • – Word choices: “breeders,” “dams” (484)
    • – Referenced “authorities”: Americans and Formosans


Cannibals and savages

  • Cannibals and savages

  • Sarcasm

    • – Moral expediency (484, 486-487)
    • – Rejects actual moral options (488)







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