Ceasefire monitoring Patrolling of buffer zone


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International peacekeeping has evolved over the past two decades: from traditional peacekeeping – wider peacekeeping – peace enforcement – peace support operations (PSO).

  • International peacekeeping has evolved over the past two decades: from traditional peacekeeping – wider peacekeeping – peace enforcement – peace support operations (PSO).

  • Changes were not merely procedural, but were a result of costly (human, environmental, political, financial) challenges experienced by peacekeepers in conflict societies.

  • This has not only been at the level of the United Nations. Regional intervention forces, such as NATO, the AU and ECOWAS have transformed the way in which they undertake peacekeeping missions.



  • Ceasefire monitoring

  • Patrolling of buffer zone

  • Humanitarian assistance*



Civilian protection

  • Civilian protection

  • Humanitarian assistance

  • Civilian policing

  • Institution building/SSR

  • DDRR

  • Rule of law

  • Infrastructure construction

  • Peace enforcement



Election observation/assistance

  • Election observation/assistance

  • Repatriation of IDPs, refugees, etc

  • Transitional governance/arrangements

  • etc



More often mandates are expanded when peacekeepers are already in the conflict theatre

  • More often mandates are expanded when peacekeepers are already in the conflict theatre

  • Lack of adequate planning (ECOWAS in Liberia and Sierra Leone)

  • Lack of requisite skills and/or experience

  • Lack of resources-personnel and logistics (AU/UN in Darfur)

  • Basic principle is that countries deploy their peacekeepers with just the requisite skills to achieve the immediate mandates.



Discrepancy between expanded mandate and available means

  • Discrepancy between expanded mandate and available means

  • Use of force still inhibiting peacekeepers ability to implement expanded mandates

  • Tasks are usually premised on consent and cooperation of local actors and belligerents

  • Coordination challenges exist where there are multiple mandating bodies



Recommended the closing of the gap between ambitious mandate and resource allocation; however this has tended to slow down UN PSO deployments.

  • Recommended the closing of the gap between ambitious mandate and resource allocation; however this has tended to slow down UN PSO deployments.

  • Greater consultation between Security council and troop contributing countries and horizontally among those countries on the ground



The expanding mandate of peacekeeping operations is now being matched with appropriate training of peacekeeping personnel (military and police).

  • The expanding mandate of peacekeeping operations is now being matched with appropriate training of peacekeeping personnel (military and police).

  • Civilian training (which caters more to the peacebuilding agenda) has only recently been ‘catching up’ with police and military training.

  • Training for all three components has been expanded to cover many facets of peace support operations and challenges, such as human rights, humanitarian law, sexual exploitation and abuse, security sector reform, DDR, negotiation, conflict management, etc.

  • In-mission training to upgrade skills of peacekeepers.



The new African Union



Training centres of excellence established within Africa to respond to appropriate training needs.

  • Training centres of excellence established within Africa to respond to appropriate training needs.

  • Training based on UN STMs and SGTM

  • Training regularly reviewed.

  • In-mission monitoring mechanisms established.



Abundance of training programmes

  • Abundance of training programmes

  • Ignorance not an excuse

  • Accountability still rests with the troop contributing countries

  • Conditions for ‘Use of force’ should be clearly defined in mandates



The manner in which peacekeeping is conducted has implications for peacebuilding in both short- term and long-term.

  • The manner in which peacekeeping is conducted has implications for peacebuilding in both short- term and long-term.

  • Transition from peacekeeping to peacebuilding needs to be smooth.

  • Whereas peacekeeping can be time-bound, peacebuilding is for the long-term.

  • Peacebuilding priorities need to be coordinated among partners to ensure sustainability.






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