High heat capacity


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HIGH HEAT CAPACITY - keeps organisms from freezing and overheating. Water acts like an insulator. Allows aquatic life to survive winter , stabilizes earth’s temperature.

  • HIGH HEAT CAPACITY - keeps organisms from freezing and overheating. Water acts like an insulator. Allows aquatic life to survive winter , stabilizes earth’s temperature.

  • ADHESION - the attraction between water molecules and other objects

    • Ex. Sticks to your body, the shower walls
  • COHESION - the attraction between water molecules

    • Ex. Surface tension – water striders
  • CAPILLARITY - the force that causes water to rise up through a tube. Why is this force important in nature?

    • Plants “pull” water up through their root systems




Water is a Renewable Resource.

  • Water is a Renewable Resource.

  • Earth is often called the water planet or the blue planet

    • About 75% of the earth’s surface is covered with water.
    • However 97% of the water is saltwater. The remaining 3% is fresh water.
    • Of that 3%, 76% is trapped in the polar icecaps!
  • The water we use on a daily basis comes from what 2 sources?

          • Surface Water & Ground Water


Also called the HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

  • Also called the HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE

  • Process by which water alternates form due to evaporation and condensation.

  • 1. Water into the atmosphere

  • 2. Water out of the atmosphere

  • 3. Water over and through the soil







Water enter the atmosphere by two processes….

  • Water enter the atmosphere by two processes….

  • 1. Evaporation- 90% enters the cycle this way

  • from oceans, seas, lakes and rivers

  • 2. Transpiration- 10% by plants

  • The amount of water that the atmosphere can hold depends on the temperature.

  • High temperature = increased moisture

  • Low temperature = decreased moisture



RELATIVE HUMIDITY:

  • RELATIVE HUMIDITY:

  • the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum that it can hold at a particular temperature.

  • Increased humidity = decreases evaporation

  • Decreased humidity = increased evaporation



Precipitation:

  • Precipitation:

  • All forms of moisture out of the atmosphere

  • Rain falls unevenly across the earth’s surface. Some areas receive practically no precipitation and other areas receive heavy rain on a daily basis.

  • Three principal factors control global water deficits and surpluses:

    • Global atmospheric circulation
    • Proximity to water sources ex: lake effect snows
    • Topography


Air sweeps up the windward side of a mountain

  • Air sweeps up the windward side of a mountain

  • pressure decreases

  • and the air cools

  • 4. Moisture in the air condenses.

  • 5. Rain falls on the mountaintops

  • 6. Cool, dry air descends creating dry areas with very little precipitation.















Runoff or Surface Water:

  • Runoff or Surface Water:

  • -Water that flows directly over the surface into streams that form rivers which make lakes and eventually run into the oceans.

  • - Societies throughout history have been built where surface water is abundant. Why?

    • - Food, Agriculture, Travel, Supplies




Watershed or Drainage Basin:

  • Watershed or Drainage Basin:

  • - The entire area drained by a river is known as its watershed

  • Example: Ohio River Watershed is where we live









Chesapeake Bay Watershed

  • Chesapeake Bay Watershed





Infiltration-

  • Infiltration-

  • -Water that doesn’t runoff, is absorbed by the soil or evaporates.

  • -Infiltration is the process of water seeping through the various layers of soil.



Groundwater: water stored beneath earth’s surface in sediments & rock formations.

  • Groundwater: water stored beneath earth’s surface in sediments & rock formations.

  • Where the rocks & soil are saturated is called the water table.



An underground rock formation that stores groundwater is called an aquifer. Groundwater may take millions of years to collect.

  • An underground rock formation that stores groundwater is called an aquifer. Groundwater may take millions of years to collect.

  • The area from which an aquifer receives its water from is called its recharge area.

  • The amount of space between the particles that make up rock in an aquifer is its porosity.

  • The more porous a rock is, the more water it can hold.



The ability of rock/soil to allow water to flow through it is Permeability.

  • The ability of rock/soil to allow water to flow through it is Permeability.

    • Permeable – gravel, sand, sandstone, limestone
    • Impermeable – clay, granite
    • An aquifer is reached by drilling into the ground. A well can be drilled 30-1000 meters deep to reach the water




Artesian Aquifer

    • Artesian Aquifer
    • -Sometimes the water is close to the surface and bubbles out of the ground without pumping as a spring or seep




The largest aquifer in the US is the Ogallala Aquifer. It is found in the Great Plains states.

  • The largest aquifer in the US is the Ogallala Aquifer. It is found in the Great Plains states.

  • - It is mostly used for crop irrigation, but it is being withdrawn MUCH faster than it can be recharged.

  • - It currently holds approximately 4 quadrillion liters of water, which is enough to fill Lake Huron









Oceans

  • Oceans

  • Frozen Water- Glaciers, Ice, Snow

  • Groundwater

  • Rivers and Streams

  • Lakes and Ponds

  • Wetlands

  • Atmosphere

  • Water may reside briefly in one compartment or stay there for eons.

  • The length of time water typically spends in a compartment is called the Residence Time.







97% of all liquid water on the earth.

  • 97% of all liquid water on the earth.

  • 90% of the earth’s biomass

  • Average residence time of water in the ocean:

  • -3,000 years before entering the water cycle.

  • Ocean currents moderate the climate by redistributing warm and cold water around the earth like a global ocean conveyor belt





Glaciers, Ice, and Snow

  • Glaciers, Ice, and Snow

  • 2.4% of world’s water is classified as fresh.

  • 90% in glaciers, ice caps, and snowfields

  • Now, Antarctic glaciers contain nearly 85% of all ice in the world.

  • Greenland, together with ice floating around the North Pole, is another 10%.



Ground water is the second largest reservoir of fresh water

    • Ground water is the second largest reservoir of fresh water


Rivers and Streams

  • Rivers and Streams

  • Precipitation that does not evaporate or infiltrate

  • Discharge:

  • -The amount of water that passes a fixed point in a given amount of time

    • Usually expressed as cubic feet per second




Ponds:

  • Ponds:

  • Bodies of water shallow enough for rooted plants to grow over most of the bottom.

  • Lakes:

  • Inland depressions that hold standing fresh water year-round.



Play a vital role in hydrologic cycle

    • Play a vital role in hydrologic cycle
      • Lush plant growth stabilizes soil and retards surface runoff, allowing more aquifer infiltration.
        • Disturbance reduces natural water-absorbing capacity, resulting in floods and erosion in wet periods, and less water flow the rest of the year.
        • Half of U.S. wetlands are gone.




The Atmosphere:

  • The Atmosphere:

    • Among the smallest water reservoirs
  • < 0.001% of total water supply

  • Has the most rapid turnover rate

  • Mechanism for distributing fresh water over landmasses and replenishing terrestrial reservoirs



EASTERN USA:

  • EASTERN USA:

  • The largest uses of water are for energy production, cooling, and manufacturing.

  • WESTERN USA:

  • the major use is for agriculture

  • Most serious problems: flooding, urban shortages, pollution.



http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/deadly-mudslide/rescue-experts-bolster-desperate-hunt-mudslide-survivors-n61291

  • http://www.nbcnews.com/storyline/deadly-mudslide/rescue-experts-bolster-desperate-hunt-mudslide-survivors-n61291













http://www.csgnetwork.com/waterusagecalc.html

  • http://www.csgnetwork.com/waterusagecalc.html



Causes of Freshwater Shortages:

  • Causes of Freshwater Shortages:

    • Dry climate
    • Drought- pd of 21 days or longer in which precipitation is at least 70% lower and evaporation is higher than normal.
    • Desiccation- drying of the soil because of such activities as deforestation and over grazing by live stock
    • Water Stress- low per capita availability of water caused by increasing numbers of people relying on limited runoff levels.




Aral Sea (10 min)

  • Aral Sea (10 min)



Water Stressed: An area where the volume of its reliable runoff per person drops to below about 17,000 cubic meters (60,000 cubic feet) per year.

  • Water Stressed: An area where the volume of its reliable runoff per person drops to below about 17,000 cubic meters (60,000 cubic feet) per year.

  • Water Sarcity: when yearly per capita water availability falls below 1,000 cubic meters (35,000 cubic feet)

  • According to the UN, about 500 million people live in countries that are water scarce or water stressed. – est. that by 2025 that 2.4-3.4 billion people.





(4 min) moving California’s water supply

  • (4 min) moving California’s water supply



How many people that have access to reliable and safe water supply depends on:

  • How many people that have access to reliable and safe water supply depends on:

      • Location
      • Income Level
      • Large Rivers carry off runoff & are far from agricultural areas
      • Over all precip maybe plentiful but can not be collected b/c can’t afford water storage capabilities
      • Those living on less than $1 a day can’t afford or cut off from areas where there is municipal water.






Ways to increase freshwater supplies to an area that is under water stress:

  • Ways to increase freshwater supplies to an area that is under water stress:

      • Build dams and reservoirs to store runoff
      • Bring in surface water from another area
      • Withdraw groundwater
      • Convert salt water to fresh water (desalination, which is very expensive)
      • Waste less water
      • Import food to reduce water use


A structure that prevents most of the water from traveling downstream is a dam.

  • A structure that prevents most of the water from traveling downstream is a dam.

  • The water that collects behind is a reservoir or an artificial lake.



Uses for a Dam:

  • Uses for a Dam:

  • Capture and store runoff that can be released as needed.

  • Controlling Floods

  • Producing Hydroelectric Power

  • Supplying water for irrigation and for towns and cities

  • Reservoirs also provide recreational activities such as swimming, fishing, and boating





Pro:

  • Pro:

  • -Worldwide they have increased available runoff by 1/3

  • Con:

  • -Decrease water flow that eventually reaches the sea

  • - destroy ecosystems

  • -increase evaporation









Hoover Dam spans the Colorado River in Black Canyon between Arizona and Nevada, some 30 miles southeast of Las Vegas Nevada. Constructed in the 1930s, the concrete arch-gravity structure was intended to prevent flooding as well as provide much-needed irrigation and hydroelectric power to arid regions of states like California and Arizona. It was originally known as Boulder Dam, but was renamed in 1947 in honor of Herbert Hoover, who as U.S. secretary of commerce and the 31st U.S. president proved instrumental in getting the dam built. At 726 feet high and 1,244 feet long, Hoover Dam was one of the largest man-made structures in the world at the time of its construction, and one of the world's largest producers of hydroelectric power

  • Hoover Dam spans the Colorado River in Black Canyon between Arizona and Nevada, some 30 miles southeast of Las Vegas Nevada. Constructed in the 1930s, the concrete arch-gravity structure was intended to prevent flooding as well as provide much-needed irrigation and hydroelectric power to arid regions of states like California and Arizona. It was originally known as Boulder Dam, but was renamed in 1947 in honor of Herbert Hoover, who as U.S. secretary of commerce and the 31st U.S. president proved instrumental in getting the dam built. At 726 feet high and 1,244 feet long, Hoover Dam was one of the largest man-made structures in the world at the time of its construction, and one of the world's largest producers of hydroelectric power



The riverbed had to be dredged clear of deep silt and sediment to expose a bedrock foundation for the building of Hoover Dam. It was a tedious process of digging four diversion tunnels through canyon walls that would divert river flow around the dam site to join the Colorado River farther downstream

  • The riverbed had to be dredged clear of deep silt and sediment to expose a bedrock foundation for the building of Hoover Dam. It was a tedious process of digging four diversion tunnels through canyon walls that would divert river flow around the dam site to join the Colorado River farther downstream











Dry land above gets covered

  • Dry land above gets covered

    • Displaces people
    • Destroys ecosystems
  • Flow downstream is reduced

  • Dam Failure



The Johnstown Flood (or Great Flood of 1889 as it became known locally) occurred on May 31, 1889. It was the result of the catastrophic failure of the South Fork Dam situated on the Little Conemaugh River 14 miles (23 km) upstream of the town of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA, made worse by several days of extremely heavy rainfall. The dam's failure unleashed a torrent of 20 million tons of water (4.8 billion U.S. gallons; 18.2 million cubic meters; 18.2 billion liters) from the reservoir known as Lake Conemaugh. With a volumetric flow rate that temporarily equaled that of the Mississippi River, the flood killed 2,209 people and caused US$17 million of damage.

  • The Johnstown Flood (or Great Flood of 1889 as it became known locally) occurred on May 31, 1889. It was the result of the catastrophic failure of the South Fork Dam situated on the Little Conemaugh River 14 miles (23 km) upstream of the town of Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA, made worse by several days of extremely heavy rainfall. The dam's failure unleashed a torrent of 20 million tons of water (4.8 billion U.S. gallons; 18.2 million cubic meters; 18.2 billion liters) from the reservoir known as Lake Conemaugh. With a volumetric flow rate that temporarily equaled that of the Mississippi River, the flood killed 2,209 people and caused US$17 million of damage.













Pros and Cons of Large-Scale Water Transfer:

  • Pros and Cons of Large-Scale Water Transfer:

    • Tunnels, aqueducts, & underground pipes can transfer stream runoff collected by dams and reservoirs from rich water areas to water poor areas.
    • Degrades rivers, threaten fisheries, & reduces flushing action that helps clean bays of pollution, eliminating wetlands, increasing salinity of seas, decrease animal populations, increasing groundwater and surface water pollution….


Owens River Canal --->> Los Angeles

  • Owens River Canal --->> Los Angeles

  • Colorado River --->> UT, AZ, CA





Withdrawing Groundwater

  • Withdrawing Groundwater

  • -Removal of water from AQUIFERS

  • -In U.S.; 50% of drinking water and 43% of irrigation water come from the ground.

  • - Pros: Available all year, Less evaporation

  • - Cons: Decrease water table, Deplete aquifers, Draw chemicals/salt water, Aquifer subsidence, Cone of Depression





Saltwater intrusion (2 min)

  • Saltwater intrusion (2 min)



Increased use of powerful electric and diesel pumps remove water from aquifers faster than it is can be renewed by precipitation.

  • Increased use of powerful electric and diesel pumps remove water from aquifers faster than it is can be renewed by precipitation.

  • City vs. Country:

    • Industry & cities demand more water so farmers almost always lose in the competition for scarce water.
    • Rich areas also demand more water & deprive poorer areas of the water supply.


Water Table

  • Water Table

      • Because of demand for water, the water table drops.
      • As the water table drops:
        • Farmers must drill deeper wells
        • Buy larger pumps to bring the water to the surface
        • Use more electricity to run the pumps
        • -Poorer farmers can not afford to do this.


Lowering the water table when a well is drilled into aquifer causes a cone of depression (when the groundwater is pumped into the surface faster than it can flow through the aquifer to the well. )

  • Lowering the water table when a well is drilled into aquifer causes a cone of depression (when the groundwater is pumped into the surface faster than it can flow through the aquifer to the well. )

  • http://www.montereyinstitute.org/courses/AP%20Environmental%20Science/course%20files/multimedia/lesson44/lessonp.html?showTopic=1





Removing dissolved salts from ocean water or from brackish water (slightly salty) groundwater, called desalination, is another way to increase supplies of groundwater.

  • Removing dissolved salts from ocean water or from brackish water (slightly salty) groundwater, called desalination, is another way to increase supplies of groundwater.

  • Two Methods:

    • Distillation- heating salt water until it evaporates (and leaves behind salt in solid form) and condenses in fresh water.


Reverse Osmosis- salt water is pumped at high pressure through a thin membrane whose pores allow water molecules to pass, but not dissolved salts.

    • Reverse Osmosis- salt water is pumped at high pressure through a thin membrane whose pores allow water molecules to pass, but not dissolved salts.
      • -Push the fresh water out of salt water.


Desalination (2:43)

  • Desalination (2:43)







Desalination from salt water aquifers (2:23)

  • Desalination from salt water aquifers (2:23)



Creating rain by dumping chemicals into the atmosphere

  • Creating rain by dumping chemicals into the atmosphere

  • Drawbacks:

  • -Can’t be used in extremely arid regions

  • -Introduce large amounts of chemicals into the soil/water



Cloud seeding (4:59)

  • Cloud seeding (4:59)



Cloud seeding (1:43)

  • Cloud seeding (1:43)



  • Cause and Effects of Flooding:

      • Heavy rain
      • Rapid Snow Melting
  • Flood plain

      • The adjacent area to a river or stream. When the water level gets too high it over flows its banks and enters the flood plane.




CHANNELIZATION: Deepen, widen, and straighten waterways

  • CHANNELIZATION: Deepen, widen, and straighten waterways



2. ARTIFICIAL LEEVES: Walls to prevent water into floodplains

  • 2. ARTIFICIAL LEEVES: Walls to prevent water into floodplains

  • 3. FLOOD CONTROL DAMS







Store water in a reservoir and releasing it gradually.

  • Store water in a reservoir and releasing it gradually.

  • Restoring Wetlands to take advantage of the Natural flood control provided by floodplains.

  • Managing flood-prone areas

        • Prohibiting certain types of buildings or activities in high risk areas
        • Elevating buildings built on flood plains
        • Constructing a floodway that allows water to flow through an area with minimal damage.




SURFACE WATER

  • SURFACE WATER

  • EAST:

  • Doctrine of Riparian Rights

  • -Anyone whose land adjoins a stream has the right to use H2O as long as some remains

  • WEST:

  • Principle of Prior Appropriation

  • -1st come, 1st served

  • -Later users are cutoff to satisfy early users



Ground water belongs to whoever owns the land above

  • Ground water belongs to whoever owns the land above

  • Owners can withdraw as much as they want

  • Can sell, trade or lease to make money



You need to come in tomorrow with 5 ways your family could reduce your water usage around your home.

  • You need to come in tomorrow with 5 ways your family could reduce your water usage around your home.




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