History class-xii (2009-10)


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406  (History__XII)
HISTORY
Class-XII (2009-10)
1.
Mrs. Charanjit Kaur
Principal (Team Leader)
Co-Ed. S.V. Jor Bagh, New Delhi
2.
Sh. Ramdev
Lecturer (Member)
Sarvodaya Bal Vidyalaya
Plot No. 6, Jhandewalan,
New Delhi
3.
Mrs. Anita Jayant
Lecturer (Member)
RPVV Suraj Mal Vihar
New Delhi
4.
Miss Ruchi Anand
Lecturer (Member)
RPVV, Yamuna Vihar
5.
Mrs. Chander Kanta
Lecturer (Member)
RPVV Raj Niwas Marg No - 2.
6.
Sh. S.P. Pandey
Lecturer (Member)
RSBV, Kalyan Puri
Delhi-110091

407  (History__XII)
DESIGN OF QUESTION PAPER
HISTORY
CLASS XII
Time : 3 Hours
M.M.: 100
I.
Weightage to form of questions.
Form of question
No. of
Marks for
Total
questions
each
marks
Long answer (LA)
2
8
16
Short answer (SA)
8
5
40
Very short answers
5
2
10
Passage based questions
3
8
24
Skill (Map work)
2
5
10
Total 20
100
Note : Each Passage based question will have 3-4 question with marks ranging from 1 to 4.
II.
Weightage to content
Themes in Indian History (Part1)
25 marks
Themes in Indian History (Part 2)
30 marks
Themes in Indian History (Part 3)
35 marks
Map work
10 marks
III.
Weightage to Difficulty Level
Essentlal difficulty Level
Percentage
A
 Easy
30%
B
 Average
50%
C
 Difficult
20%
IV.
Division of Question Paper
The question paper will be divided into A,B,C,D and E.
Part A will carry 5 questions of 2 marks each.
Part B will carry 8 questions of 5 marks each.
Part C will carry three source-based questions. The number of questions will vary from 3 to 4.
The marks will range from 1 to 4. The sources will be taken from the textboks as directed
therein.
Part D will carry 2 question of 8 marks each.
Part E will have 2 maps questions of 5 marks each.
V.
Scheme of Option
Part A will have no choice
Part B will be divided into 3 sections (books). Section 1will have 4 questions out of which the
student will attempt any 3. Section 2 will have 3 questions out of which the student will attempt any
2. Section 3 will have 4 questions out of which the student will attempt any 3 questions.
Part C will be source-based questions. There will be six source, two from each question followed

408  (History__XII)
by questions. The student will attempt one source from each section.
In Part D, the questions will be from Section 2 (Book 2) and Section 3 (Book 3), There will be an
internet choice in each question.
- Part E, there will be two map questions - one for indentification (no choice) and one for location
and labeling (will have a choice).
VI.
Weightage of Marks Book-wise
Book I (Ancient Indian)
= 8+5+5+5+2
=  25 marks
Book II (Medieval India)
= 8+5+5+8+2+2
= 30 marks
Book III (Modern India)
= 8+5+5+5+8+2+2
= 35 marks
Map
= 10 marks
Total
= 100 marks
LIST OF MAPS
Book I
1.
P-2.
Mature Harappan sites:
Harappa, Banawali, Kalibangan, Balakat, Rakhigadi, Dholavira, Nageshwar, Lothal,
Mahenjodaro, Chanhudaro, Kot Diji.
2.
P-30. Mahajanapada and cities :
Vajji, Magadha, Koshala, Kuru, Panchala, Gandhara, Avanti, Rajgir, Ujjain, Taxila, Varanasi.
3.
P-33. Distribution of Ashoka inscription :
i) Pataliputra - Capital of Ashoka.
ii) Majas Rock Edicts - Girnar, Sopara, Sanati, Kalsi Shishupalgarh.
iii) Pillar inscriptions - Sanchi, Topra, Meerut, Pillar, Kaushambi.
iv) Kingdom of Cholas, Keralaputras and Pandyas.
4.
P-43. Important kingdoms and towns :
i) Kushans, Shakas, Satvahana, Vakarakas, Gupta
ii) Cities/ towns : Mathura, Kanauj, Puhar, Brahukachchha
5.
P-95
Major Buddhist Sites :
Nagarjunakonda, Sanchi, Amaravati, Kumbini
Book 2
1.
P- 174 Bidar, Golconda, Bijapur, Vijayanagarm Chandragirim Kanchipuram, Mysore, Thanjavur,
Kolar
2.
P-214. Territories under Babur, Akbar and Aurangzeb :
Delhi, Agra, Panipat, Amber, Ajmer, Lahore, Goa
Book 3
1.
P-297 Territories/ cities under British Control in 1857 :
Punjab, Sindh, Bombay, Fort St. David, Masulipatnam, Berar, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Avadh, Surat,
Calcutta, Dacca, Chitagong, Patna, Benaras, Allahabad and Lucknow.
2.
P-305. Main centres of the Revolt :
Delhi, Meerut, Jhansi, Lucknow, Kanpur, Azamgarh, Calcutata, Benaras, Jabalpur, Agra
3.
P-305. Important centres of the national movement :
Champaran, Kheda, Ahmedabad, Benaras, Amritsar, chauri Chaura, Lahore, Bardoli, Dandi,
Bombay (Quit India Resolution), Karachi.

409  (History__XII)
HISTORY OF CLASS - XII
Time : 3 hours
M.M. : 100
1.
The question paper will be divided into parts A,B,C,D and E the description and division of
marks over parts will be as under.
Parts
Forms of Question
Marks for each
No.of
Total
Question
Question
Marks
A.
Very short type
2
5
10
B.
Short answer type
5
8
40
C.
Long answer type
8
2
16
D.
Passage based question
8
3
24
E.
Skill (Map Work)
5
2
10
Total
20
100
2.
The 3 Passage based questions will be distributed among the three parts of the History
textbooks. One each in each at of these questions. There will be 4 questions with marks
ranging from 1-4.
3.
Scheme of Options : There will be no choice in Party A and B. Which will be divided into 3
Sections (books). Section 1 will have 4 questions out of which the student will attempt any
3. Section 2 will have 3 questions out of which the student will attempt any 2. Section 3 will
have 4 questions out of which the student will attempt any 3 questions. Part C & D will carry
internal choice. In Party E internal choice will be provided in one of the two map questions.

410  (History__XII)
fo"k; & lwph
Hkkx  1
1- fo"k; & ,d
b±Vsa] eudsa rFkk vfLFk;k¡ ¼gM+Iik lH;rk½
2- fo"k; & nks
jktk] fdlku vkSj uxj
vkjafHkd jkT; vkSj vFkZO;oLFkk,¡ ¼yxHkx 600 bZ- iwoZ ls 600 bZloha½
3- fo"k; & rhu
ca/kqrk] tkfr rFkk oxZ
vkjafHkd lekt ¼yxHkx 600 bZ- iwoZ ls 600 bZloha½
4- fo"k; & pkj
fopkjd] fo"k; vkSj bekjrsa
lkaLd`frd fodkl ¼yxHkx 600 bZ- iwoZ ls 600 bZloh rd½
Hkkx & 2
5- fo"k; & ik¡p
;kf=k;ksa ds utfj,
lekt ds ckjs esa mldh le> ¼yxHkx nloha ls l=kgoha lnh rd½
6- fo"k; & N%
HkfDr & lwQha ijaijk,a
/kkfeZd fo'okl esa cnyko vkSj J)k xazFk
¼yxHkx vkBoha ls vBkjgoha lnh rd½
7- fo"k; & lkr
,d lkezkT; dh jkt/kkuh % fot;uxj ¼yxHkx pkSngoka ls lksygoha lnh rd½
8- fo"k; & vkB
fdlku] tehankj vkSj jkT;

411  (History__XII)
d`f"k] lekt vkSj eqxy lkezkT; ¼yxHkx lksygoha vkSj l=kgoha lnh½
9- fo"k; & ukS
'kkld vkSj fofHkUu bfro`fr
eqxy njckj
Hkkx&3
10- fo"k; & nl
mifuos'kokn vkSj nsgkr
ljdkjh vfHkys[kksa dk v/;;u
11- fo"k; & X;kjg
fonzksgh vkSj jkt
1857 dk vkanksyu vkSj mlds O;k[;ku
12- fo"k; & ckjg
vkSifuosf'kd 'kgj
uxjhdj.k] uxj ;kstuk] LFkkiR;
13- fo"k; & rsjg
egkRek xk¡/kh vkSj jk"Vªh; vkanksyu
lfou; voKk vkSj mlls vkxs
14- fo"k; & pkSng
foHkktu dks le>uk
jktuhfr] Le`fr] vuqHko
15- fo"k; & ianzg
lafo/kku dk fuekZ.k
,d u, ;qx dh 'kq:vkr

412  (History__XII)
fo"k; ,d
b±Vsa] euds rFkk vfLFk;k¡ ¼gM+Iik lH;rk½
Lej.kh; fcUnq
1-
gM+Iik lH;rk dk ukedj.k & gM+Iik uked LFkku tgk¡ ;g laLd`fr igyh ckj [kksth xbZ Fkh mlh ds uke ij
fd;k x;k gSA bldk dky fu/kkZj.k yxHkx 2600 vkSj 1900 bZlk iwoZ ds chp fd;k x;k gSA
2-
fla/kq ?kkVh lH;rk dks & gM+Iik laLd`fr Hkh dgk tkrk gSA
3-
fla/kq ?kkVh lH;rk dh lcls] fof'k"V iqjkoLrq & eqgj & ;g lsy[kM+h uked iRFkj ls cukbZ tkrh FkhA
4-
gM+Iik lH;rk dh loZizFke tkudkjh & 1921 esa gqbZ rFkk bl lH;rk dh tkudkjh nsus okys fo}ku & jk[kky nkl
cuthZ vkSj ek/kks Lo:i oRlA
5-
gM+Iik lH;rk & 'kgjh lH;rk FkhA
6-
eksgutksnM+ksa dk vFkZ & e`rdksa dk vFkok izsrksa dk 7-
gM+Iik lH;rk dh tkudkjh ds izeq[k lzksr & eqn Hkk.M] HkkSfrd vo'ks"k] vkHkw"k.k] vkStkj] eksgjsa] bekjrsa] [kqnkbZ
esa feys flDds bR;kfnA
8-
gM+IikbZ laLd`fr ds izeq[k {ks=k & vQxkfuLrku] tEew] CywfpLrku ¼ikfdLrku½] xqtjkr] jktLFkku] if'peh mÙkj
izns'kA
9-
gM+Iik lH;rk dkaL; ;qxhu lH;rk & dkaL; /kkrq dk lkoZtfud iz;ksx fd;k tkrk FkkA
10- gM+Iik LFkyksa ls feys vukt ds nkuksa esa & xsssgwa] tkS] nky] lQsn puk rFkk fry 'kkfey gSaA
11- gM+Iik lH;rk ds izeq[k tkuoj & HksM+] cdjh] HkSal rFkk lwvjA o`"kHk ¼cSy½ dk iz;ksx & d`f"k dk;Z esa [ksr tksrus
ds fy, fd;k tkrk FkkA
12- gM+Iik lH;rk esas lM+dksa rFkk xfy;ksa dks yxHkx ,d] fxzM] i)fr ij cuk;k x;k Fkk vkSj ;s ,d nwljs dks ledks.k
ij dkVrh FkhaA cLrh nks Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr Fkh & nqxZ vkSj fupyk 'kgjA
13- ugjsa] dq,a] tyk'k; & flapkbZ ds izeq[k lzksr FksA
14- [kkuk idkus vkSj crkbZ djus tSlh xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, rFkk [kklrkSj ls xeZ vkSj 'kq"d ekSle esa & vkaxu dk iz;ksx
fd;k tkrk FkkA
15- fo'kky Lukukxkj & ;g vkaxu esa cuk ,d vk;rkdkj tyk'k; gSA tks pkjksa vksj ls ,d xfy;kjs ls f?kjk gqvk
gSA tyk'k; ds ry rd tkus ds fy, lhf<+;ka cuh FkhaA
16- gM+Iik lH;rk ds 'kok/kkuksa esa vkerkSj ij e`rdksa dks xrks± esa nQuk;k x;k FkkAmuds lkFk e`nHkk.M vkSj vo'ks"k
feys gSaA

413  (History__XII)
17- vkHkw"k.kksa o eudksa dks rkSyus ds fy, & ck¡V dk iz;ksx gksrk FkkA ;g pVZ uked iRFkj ls cuk;s tkrs FksA
18- ,d Jaxh & ,d lhax okyk tkuoj tks eqgjksa ij vafdr fd;k tkrk FkkA
19- eudksa ds fuekZ.k esa iz;qDr inkFkks±& dkuhZfy;u ¼lqUnj yky jax dk½ tSLiqj] LQkfVd] DokVZt rFkk lsy[kM+h
tSls iRFkj & rkack] dkalk rFkk lksus tSlh] /kkrq,a rFkk 'ka[k Q;kWUl vkSj idh feêh] lHkh dk iz;ksx euds
cukus esa gksrk FkkA buds vkdkj tSls & pØkdkj] csyukdkj] xksykdkj rFkk [kafMr gksrs FksA
20- eqgjksa vkSj eqnzkaduksa dk iz;ksx & yach nwjh ds laidks± dks lqfo/kktud cukus ds fy, gksrk FkkA
21- gM+Iik lH;rk dk fouk'k & tyok;q ifjorZu ouksa dh dVkbZ] ck<+] ufn;ksa dk lw[k tkuk ekxZ cnyus ds dkj.k
gqvkA
22- tujy dfuZa?ke & igys Hkkjrh; iqjkrkfRod los{k.k ds Mk;jsDVj & bUgksausa mUuhloha 'krkCnh ds e/; esa
iqjkrkfRod mR[kuu vkjaHk fd;kA
23- fyax & ml ifjLd`r iRFkj dks dgk tkrk gSA ftldh iwtk Hkxoku f'ko ds :i esa gksrh gSA
24- 'keu & os efgyk,a vkSj iq:"k gksrs gSa tks tknqbZ rFkk bykt djus dh 'kfDr gksus vkSj lkFk gh nwljh nqfu;ka ls
laidZ lk/kus ds lkeF;Z dk nkok djrs gSaA
vfry?kq mÙkjh iz'u ¼2 vadksa okys½
1-
gM+Iik esas mR[kuuksa dk vkjaHk dc o fdlds }kjk fd;k x;kA
2-
miegk}hi esa fla/kq ?kkVh lH;rk ds izeq[k iqjkLFky {ks=k dkSu dkSu ls Fks \
3-
gM+Iik lH;rk dh lokZf/kd fof'k"V iqjkoLrq dkSu lh gS\ rFkk ;g fdl iRFkj ls cukbZ xbZ gS \
4-
gM+Iik lH;rk esa lcls yaEcs vfHkys[k esa fdrus fpUg` vafdr gSaA ;g fdl izdkj fy[ks tkrs FksA
5-
fdu oLrqvksa ds yksi ls Kkr gqvk fd gM+Iik lH;rk dk iru gks x;k FkkA
6-
gM+Iik dky esa eqgjksa vkSj eqnzkaduksa ds egRo dks Li"V dhft,A
7-
iqjkrRofon~ iqjkoLrqvksa dks fdl izdkj oxhZd`r djrs gsa \
8-
gM+Iik dh fyfi dh dksbZ nks fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A
y?kq mÙkjh; iz'u ¼5 vadksa okys½
1-
eksgu tksnM+ksa dh x`g LFkkiR; dyk dk o.kZu dft,A
2-
tujy dfu/kae dkSu Fks \ og fdl izdkj gM+Iik ds egRo dks le>us esa pwd x, \
3-
gM+Iik fuokfl;ksa }kjk {ks=k esa cuk, x, fo'kky Lukukxkj dh eq[; fo'ks"krkvksa dk la{ksi esa o.kZu dhft,A
4-
gM+Iik dh lH;rk ds vUr ds laHkkfor dkj.kksa dh leh{kk dhft,A
5-
iqjkrRofonksa }kjk viuh [kkstksa dks fdl izdkj oxhZd`r fd;k tkrk Fkk \ mYys[k dhft,A

414  (History__XII)
6-
gM+Iikoklh f'kYi ^mRiknu ds fy, dPpk eky izkIr djus ds fy, dkSu ls rjhds viukrs Fks \ o.kZu dhft,A
7-
gM+Iik lH;rk ds 'kkldksa ds fo"k; esa izpfyr ekU;rkvksa dh O;k[;k dhft,A
vuqPNsnksa ij vk/kkfjr iz'u
fuEufyf[kr vuqPNsnksa dks if<+, vkSj var esa iwNs x, iz'uksa ds mÙkj nhft,A
1- iqjkoLrqvksa dh igpku dSls dh tkrh gS
Hkkstu rS;kj djus dh izfØ;k esa vukt ihlus ds ;a=k rFkk mUgsa vkil esa feykus] feJ.k djus rFkk idkus ds
fy, cjruksa dh vko';drk FkhA bu lHkh dks iRFkj] /kkrq rFkk feêh ls cuk tkrk FkkA ;gk¡ ,d egRoiw.kZ gM+Iik LFky
eksgutksnM+ksa esa gq, mR[kuuksa ij lcls vkjafHkd fjiksVZ esa ls dqN ,d m)j.k fn, tk jgs gSa %
vory pfDd;k¡ -- cM+h la[;k esa feyh gSa --- vkSj ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd vukt ihlus ds fy, iz;qDr ;s ,dek=k
lk/ku FkhaA lk/kkj.kr% ;s pfDd;k¡ LFkwyr% dBksj] dadjhys] vfXut vFkok cyqvk iRFkj ls fufeZr Fkha vkSj vkerkSj ij
buls vR;f/kd iz;ksx ds ladsr feyrs gSaA pw¡fd bu pfDd;ksa ds ry lkekU;r;k mÙky gSa] fuf'pr :i ls bUgsa t+ehu
esa vFkok feêh esa tek dj j[kk tkrk gksxk ftlls bUgsa fgyus ls jksdk tk ldsA nks eq[; izdkj dh pfDd;k¡ feyh
gSaA ,d os gSa ftu ij ,d nwljk NksVk iRFkj vkxs&ihNs pyk;k tkrk Fkk] ftlls fupyk iRFkj [kks[kyk gks x;k Fkk rFkk
nwljh os gSa ftudk iz;ksx laHkor% dsoy lkyu ;k rjh cukus ds fy, tM+h&cwfV;ksa rFkk elkyksa dks dwVus ds fy, fd;k
tkrk FkkA bu nwljs izdkj ds iRFkjksa dks gekjs Jfedksa }kjk ^lkyu iRFkj* dk uke fn;k x;k gS rFkk gekjs ckophZ us ,d
;gh iRFkj jlksbZ esa iz;ksx ds fy, laxzgky; esas m/kkj ek¡xk gSA vusLV esds] QnZj ,DldSos'kUl ,V eksgutksnM+ksa] 1937
ls m)`r
1-
^lkyu iRFkj* dk iz;ksx fdl izdkj fd;k tkrk Fkk ;g uke fdlds }kjk fn;k x;kA
2
2-
vory pfDd;ksa dh nks fo'ks"krk,a fyf[k,A
2
3-
pfDd;k¡ dkSu&dkSu ls iRFkjksa ls fufeZr dh tkrh Fkha \
2
4-
bfrgkldkjksa ds fy, gM+IikbZ cjruksa ds egRo dks Li"V dhft,A
2- vc rd [kksth xbZ izkphure iz.kkyh
ukfy;ksa ds fo"k; esa eSds fy[krs gSa % ^^fuf'pr :i ls ;g ,c rd [kksth xbZ loZFkk laiw.kZ izkphu iz.kkyh gSA**
gj vkokl xyh dh ukfy;ksa ls tksM+k x;k FkkA eq[; ukys xkjs esa tekbZ xbZ b±Vksa ls cus Fks vkSj bUgsa ,slh b±Vksa ls x;k Fkk ftUgsa lQkbZ ds fy, gVk;k tk ldsA dqN LFkkuksa ij x;k FkkA ?kjksa dh ukfy;k¡ igys ,d gkSnh ;k eydqaM esa [kkyh gksrh FkhaA ftlesa Bksl inkFkZ tek gks tkrk Fkk vkSj xank
ikuh xyh dh ukfy;ksa esa cg tkrk FkkA cgqr yacs ukyksa esa dqN varjkyksa ij lQkbZ ds fy, gkSfn;k¡ cukbZ xbZ FkhaA ;g
iqjkrRo dk ,d vtwck gh gS fd ^^eycs] eq[;r% jsr ds NksVs&NksVs

415  (History__XII)
feys gSa tks n'kkZrs gSa ---- fd ukyksa dh lQkbZ ds ckn dpjs dks ges'kk gVk;k ugha tkrk FkkA**
vusZLV eSds] vyhZ baMl flfoykbZts+'ku] 1948
ty fudkl iz.kkfy;k¡ dsoy cM+s 'kgjksa rd gh lhfer ugha Fkha cfYd ;s dbZ NksVh cfLr;ksa esa Hkh feyh FkhaA
mnkgj.k ds fy, yksFky esa vkoklksa ds fuekZ.k ds fy, tgk¡ ds fy, tgk dPNh b±Vksa dk iz;ksx gqvk Fkk] ogha ukfy;k¡
iDdh b±Vksa ls cukbZ xbZ FkhA
1-
^^gM+Iik 'kgj dh ty fudkl iz.kkyh bl lH;rk dh ,d vuwBh fo'ks"krk Fkh** bl dFku dks Li"V dhft,A
3
2-
eksgutksnM+ksa dh x`g LFkkiR; dh nks fo'ks"krkvksa dk mYys[k dhft,A
2
3-
ukfy;ksa ds fo"k; esa eSds ds eq[; fopkjksa dk o.kZu dhft,A
3
,d ^vkØe.k* ds lk{;
MSMeSu ysu ,d ladjh xyh gS] ftldh pkSM+kbZ 3 ls 6 QhV rd ifjorhZ gS ---- og fcUnq tgk¡ ;g xyh if'pe
dh vksj eqM+rh gS] 4 QhV rFkk 2 bap dh xgjkbZ ij ,d [kksiM+h dk Hkkx rFkk ,d O;Ld Nkrh rFkk gkFk ds Åijh
Hkkx dh gfì;k¡ feyh FkhaA ;s lHkh cgqr HkqjHkqjh voLFkk esa FkhaA ;g /kM+ ihB ds cy] xyh esa vkM+k iM+k gqvk FkkA if'pe
dh vksj 15 bap dh nwjh ij ,d NksVh [kksiM+h ds dqN VqdM+s FksA bl xyh dk uke bUgha vo'ks"kksa ij vk/kkfjr gSA
tkWu ek'kZy] eksgtksnM+ksa ,aM n baMl flfoykbZts+'ku] 1931 ls m)`rA
1925 esa eksgutksnM+kas ds blh Hkkx ls lksyg yksxksa ds vfLFk&iatj mu vkHkw"k.kksa lfgr feys Fks tks bUgksausa e`R;q
ds le; igus gq, FksA
cgr le; i'pkr 1947 esa vkj-bZ-,e- Oghyj us tks Hkkjrh; iqjkrkfRod losZ{k.k ds rRdkyhu Mk;jsDVj tujy
Fks] bu iqjkrkfRod lk{;ksa dk miegk}hi esa Kkr izkphure xzaFk _Xosn ds lk{;ksa ls laca/k LFkkfir djus dk iz;kl fd;k
A mUgksausa fy[kk %
_Xosn esa iqj 'kCn dk mYys[k gS ftldk vFkZ gS izkphj] fdyk ;k x<+A vk;ks± ds ;q) ds nsork banz dks iqjanj vFkkZr~
x<+&fo/oald dgk x;k gSA
;s nqxZ dgk¡ gSa ----;k Fks ---\ igys ;g ekuk x;k Fkk fd ;s feFkd ek=k Fks ---- gM+Iik esa gky esa gq, mR[kuuksa us
ekuks aifjn`'; cny fn;k gSA ;gk¡ ge eq[;r% vuk;Z izdkj dh ,d cgqr fodflr lH;rk ikrs gSa ftlesa vc izkIr
tkudkjh ds vuqlkj fo'kky fdyscafn;k¡ dh xbZZ Fkha--------- ;g lqn`<+ :i ls fLFkj lH;rk dSls u"V gqbZ\ gks ldrk gS
tyok;q laca/kh] vkfFkad vFkok jktuhfrd âkl us bls det+ksj fd;k gks] ij vf/kd laHkkouk bl ckr dh gS dh gS fd
tkucw> dj rFkk cM+s iSekus ij fd, x, fouk'k u bls vafre :i ls lekIr dj fn;kA ;g ek=k la;ksx gh ugha gks ldrk
fd eksgutksnM+ks ds vafre pj.k esa vkHkkl gksrk gS fd ;gk¡ iq:"kksa] efgykvksa rFkk cPpksa dk tulagkj fd;k x;k FkkA
ikfjfLFkfrd lk{;ksa ds vk/kkj ij banz vfHk;qDr ekuk tkrk gSA
vkj-bZ-,e- Oghyj] gMIik 1946] ,af'k,aV bafM;k ¼tuZy½ 1947 ls m)rA

416  (History__XII)
1960 ds n'kd esa tkWtZ MsYl uked iqjkrRofon us eksgutksnM+ks esa tulagkj ds lk{;ksa ij loky mBk,A mUgksaus
fn[kk;k fd ml LFkku ij feys lHkh vfLFk&iatj ,d gh dky ls lac) ugha Fks%
gkyk¡fd buesa ls nks ls fuf'pr :i esa lagkj ds ladsr feyrs gSa]---------- ij vf/kdka'k vfLFk;k¡ ftu lanHkksaZ esa
feyh gSa os bafxr djrh gSa fd ;s vR;ar ykijokgh rFkk J)kghu rjhds ls cuk, x, 'kok/kku FksA 'kgj esa feyh gSa os
bafxr djrh gSa fd ;s vR;a; ykijokgh rFkk J)kghu rjhds ls cuk, x, 'kok/kku FksA 'kgj ds vafre dky ls lac)
fouk'k dk dksbZ Lrj ugha gS] O;kid Lrj ij vfXudkaM ds fpà ugha gSa] pkjksa vksj QSys gfFk;kjksa ds chp dop/kkjh
lSfudksa ds 'ko ugha gSaA nqxZ ls tks 'kgj dk ,dek=k fdyscan Hkkx Fkk] vafre vkRej{k.k ds dksbZ lk{; ugha feys gSaA
th-,Q-MsYl] ^n fefFkdy eSlsdj ,V eksgutksnM+ks*] ,DlsihMh'ku] 1964 ls m)rA
tSlk fd vki ns[k ldrs gSa fd rF;ksa dk lko/kkuhiwoZd iqufuZjh{k.k dHkh&dHkh iwoZorhZ O;k[;kvksa dks iwjh rjg
ls myV nsrk gSA
1-
miegk}hi es Kkr izphure xzaFk dk D;k uke Fkk\ mlesa ^iqj 'kCn* dk vFkZ Li"V dhft,A
2
3-
^e`rdksa dh xyh* bl xyh dks D;ksa dgk x;k\
2
3-
uohu lk{; ds vk/kkj ij dHkh&dHkh izkajfHkd O;k[;k D;ksa iyV nh tkrh gS\
4
ekufp=k dk;Z & Hkkjr ds jktuhfrd js[kk&ekufp=k ij fuEufyf[kr dks vafdr o ukekafdr dhft,A
5
jk[khx<+h] pUnqgM+ksa] eksgutksnM+ksa] jaxiqj] ckykdksV

417  (History__XII)
fo"k; nks
vkjafHkd jkT; vkSj vFkZ O;oLFkk,a & jktk] fdlku vkSj uxj
¼yxHkx 600 bZ iw- ls 600 bZ0½
Lej.kh; fcUnq %
1-
Hkkjrh; vfHkys[k foKku esa mYys[kuh; izxfr 1830 esa bZLV bf.M;k dEiuh ds vf/kdkjh tsEl fizli }kjk czãh
vkSj [kjks"Bh fyfi dk vFkZ fudkyk x;kA
2-
vfHkys[kksa o ckS) xzUFkksa ds vuqlkj] vlksd lokZf/kd izfl) 'kkldksas esa ls ,d FkkA
3-
NBh 'krkCnh bZ- iwoZ ,d egRoiw.kZ ifjorZudkjh dky] jkT;ksa uxjksa dk fodkl yksgs dk c<+rk iz;ksx flDdksa dk
fodkl vkfnA
4-
tSu rFkk ckS) lfgr fofHkUu nk'kZfud fopkj /kkjkvksa dk dkyA
5-
egktuin uke ls lksyg jkT;ksa dk mYys[k & ofTt] ex/k] dkS'ky] dq:] ikapky] xka/kkj vkSj voafr tSls izeq[k
egktuin FksA
6-
'kklu O;oLFkk & egktuinksa ij jktkvksa] x.kksa&la?kksa vFkok dbZ yksxksa ds lewg dk 'kklu FkkA
7-
iz'kklu & jkt/kkfu;ksa dh fdyscanh dj olwyh lSfud ra=k eq[; vax FksA
8-
lokZf/kd 'kfDr'kkyh egktuin ex/k & mitkÅ Hkwfe yksgs dh [knkusa] ufn;ksa }kjk ;krk;kr vkokxeu] ;ksX;
'kkldA
9-
ekS;Z lkezkT; dk mn; & laLFkkid pUnzxqIr ekS;Z ¼yxHkx 321 bZ-iw-½
10- ekS;Z lkezkT; dh tkudkjh ds eq[; L=kksr & esxLFkuht ds fooj.k] dkSfVY; }kjk jfpr vFkZ'kkL=k] tSu] ckS)]
ikSjkf.kd xazFk] vfHkys[k] flDds vkfnA ¼vlkssd ds vfHkys[k o LraHk izeq[k½
11- ekS;Z lkezkT; dk iz'kklu & ikap izeq[k jktuhfrd dsUnz jkt/kkuh ikVfyiq=k vkSj pkj izkar & r{kf'kyk] mTtf;uh]
rkslfy vkSj Lo.kZxhjhA
12- nf{k.k ds jktk vkSj ljnkj & pksy] psj vkSj ik.M;~A
13- L=kksr & rfey & laxe xzaFkksa }kjkA
14- lkrokgu vkSj 'kd 'kkldksa }kjk yach nwjh ds O;kikj }kjk jktLo olwyk tkrk FkkA
15- mPp fLFkr izkIr djus ds fy, jktkvksa }kjk nsoh&nsorkvksa ds lkFk tqM+ukA ¼dq"kk.k 'kkldksa us ewfrZ;ksa ds tfj,
Lo;a dks nsorqY; izLrqr fd;kA½
16- pkSFkh 'krkCnh bZ- esa xqIr lkezkT; lfgr dbZ cM+s lkezkT;ksa dk mn;A
17- Hkkjr esa lkeaokn laHkor% xqIr dky lsA

418  (History__XII)
18- xqIr 'kkldksa ds bfrgkl fuekZ.k ds L=kksr & lkfgR;] flDds] vfHkys[kA
19- lk/kkj.k turk }kjk jktkvksa ds ckjs esa fn, fopkjksa dk o.kZu tkrd rFkk iapra=k tSls xazFkksa esaA budh Hkk"kk ikyhA
20- jktk vkSj iztk fo'ks"kdj xzkeh.k iztk ds chp rukoiw.kZ laca/kksa dk o.kZuA
21- NBh 'krkCnh bZ-iw- yksgs ds Qky dk d`f"k esa iz;ksxA
22- flapkbZ ds lk/ku & dq,a] rkykc] ugjsa bR;kfnA
23- rfey laxe lkfgR; esa xzkeh.k lekt esa fofHkUurkvksa dk mYys[kA
24- izHkkorh xqIr ls lacaf/kr vfHkys[kksa dh ns'k ds fofHkUu fgLlksa esa izkfIr Hkwfenku dk izHkko] Hkwfenku ls nqcZy gksrk
jktuhfrd izHkqRoA
25- NBh 'krkCnh esa O;kikj dk ek/;e flDdsaA
26- lksus ds flDds dq"kk.k jktk }kjk tkjhA
vfry?kq mÙkjh; iz'u & ¼2 vad okys½
1-
NBh 'krkCnh bZ-iw- esa Hkkjrh; miegk}hi esa dkSu&dkSu ls ifjorZu gq, \
2-
^tkrd* vkSj ^iapr=k* dh dFkk,a fdl izdkj bfrgkl fuekZ.k ds ,d L=kksr ds :i esa Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gSa \
3-- ^egktuin* 'kCn ls vki D;k le>rs gSa \
4-
ekS;Z lkezkT; dh tkudkjh ds eq[; L=kksr dkSu&dkSu ls gSa \
5-
NBh lnh bZ-iw- d`f"k dh mit c<+kus ds fy, fdu rjhdksa dks viuk x;k \
6-
nf{k.k Hkkjr esa jkseu flDdksa ds feyus dk D;k vfHkizk; gS \
7-
chloha lnh esa jk"Vªoknh usrkvksa us vlkksd dh fdu fo'ks"krkvksa ds dkj.k mls viuk izsj.kk L=kksr ekuk \
8-
^Js.kh* 'kCn ls D;k vfHkizk; gS \
y?kq mÙkjh; iz'u ¼5 vad okys½
1-
tsEl fizalsi dkSu Fks \ Hkkjrh; bfrgkl ys[ku esa mudh D;k nsu gS \
2-
Hkkjrh; bfrgkl dh tkudkjh ds eq[; L=kksr dkSu dkSu ls gSa \
3-
egktuinksa dh iz'kklu O;oLFkk dh O;k[;k dhft,A
4-
ex/k ds lcls vf/kd 'kfDr'kkyh cuus ds eq[; dkj.k dkSu&dkSu ls Fks \

419  (History__XII)
5-
vlksd ds ^/kEe* ls D;k vfHkizk; gS \ mlds izlkj ds fy, vlksd us D;k dne mBk;s \
7-
ekS;Z lkezkT; dh tkudkjh ds eq[; L=kksrksa dk o.kZu dhft,A
8-
esxLFkuht }kjk ekS;Z lkezkT; dh lSfud xfrfof/k;ksa dk fdl izdkj o.kZu fd;k x;k\
9-
vfHkys[kksa ls izkIr lk{;ksa dh D;k lhek,a gSa o muds egRo dk o.kZu dhft,A\
10- laxe lkfgR; ls D;k vfHkizk; gS \ buds egRo dk o.kZu dhft,A
11- Hkwfenku vfHkys[kksa ls 'kkld vkSj lk/kkj.k turk ds laca/kksa ds fo"k; dh D;k tkudkjh izkIr gksrh gS \
12- NBh 'krkCnh bZ-iw- esas O;kikj ds fodkl dk o.kZu dhft,A
13- fgUnq ;wukuh 'kkldksa }kjk tkjh fd, x, flDdksa us ifpeh vfHkys[kksa dk v/;;u esa fdl izdkj lgk;rk dh \
14- vlksd ds vfHkys[k ekS;Z lkezkT; dh iz'kklfud O;oLFkk ij D;k izdk'k Mkys gSa \
15- xqIrdkyhu Hkwfenku vfHkys[k efgykvksa ds lEifr ds vf/kdkj ds fo"k; esa D;k O;k[;k djrs gSa \


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