Hosseini makes constant hints throughout the second part of the book that the Mujahideen commanders are not in fact the heroes that the citizens are led to believe but selfish, narrow-minded, power-hungry people


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Hosseini makes constant hints throughout the second part of the book that the Mujahideen commanders are not in fact the heroes that the citizens are led to believe but selfish, narrow-minded, power-hungry people. In this presentation we will analyse in depth the clues left by Hosseni.

  • Hosseini makes constant hints throughout the second part of the book that the Mujahideen commanders are not in fact the heroes that the citizens are led to believe but selfish, narrow-minded, power-hungry people. In this presentation we will analyse in depth the clues left by Hosseni.



“No, Babi meant the tribal areas, especially the Pashtun regions in the south or the east near the Pakistani border, where women were rarely seen on the streets and only then in burqa and accompanied by men. He meant those regions where men who lived by ancient tribal laws had rebelled against the communists and their decrees to liberate women, to abolish forced marriage, to raise the minimum marriage age to sixteen for girls.”

  • “No, Babi meant the tribal areas, especially the Pashtun regions in the south or the east near the Pakistani border, where women were rarely seen on the streets and only then in burqa and accompanied by men. He meant those regions where men who lived by ancient tribal laws had rebelled against the communists and their decrees to liberate women, to abolish forced marriage, to raise the minimum marriage age to sixteen for girls.”



“There was Dostum, the flamboyant Uzbek commander, leader of the Junbish-i-Milli faction, who had a reputation for shifting allegiances. The intense, surly Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, leader the Hezb-e-Islami faction, a Pashtun who had studied engineering and once killed a Maoist student. Rabbani, Tajik leader of the Jamiat-e-Islami faction, who had taught Islam at Kabul University at the days of the monarchy. Sayyaf, a Pashtun from Paghman with Arab connections, a stout muslim and leader of the Ittebad-i-Islami faction. Abdul Ali Mazari, leader of the Hizb-e-Wahdat faction, known as Baba Marzari among his fellow Hazaras, with strong Shi’a ties to Iran.”

    • “There was Dostum, the flamboyant Uzbek commander, leader of the Junbish-i-Milli faction, who had a reputation for shifting allegiances. The intense, surly Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, leader the Hezb-e-Islami faction, a Pashtun who had studied engineering and once killed a Maoist student. Rabbani, Tajik leader of the Jamiat-e-Islami faction, who had taught Islam at Kabul University at the days of the monarchy. Sayyaf, a Pashtun from Paghman with Arab connections, a stout muslim and leader of the Ittebad-i-Islami faction. Abdul Ali Mazari, leader of the Hizb-e-Wahdat faction, known as Baba Marzari among his fellow Hazaras, with strong Shi’a ties to Iran.”


“She also saw that some of the peacemakers we throwing punches of their own.”

  • “She also saw that some of the peacemakers we throwing punches of their own.”



“The Mujahideen, armed to the teeth but now lacking a common enemy, had found the enemy in each other.”

  • “The Mujahideen, armed to the teeth but now lacking a common enemy, had found the enemy in each other.”



“Tariq explained to her the treacherous, shifting boundaries within Kabul. Laila learned from him, for instance, that this road, up to the second acacia tree on the left, belonged to one warlord; that the next four blocks, ending with the bakery shop next to the demolished pharmacy, was another warlord’s sector; and that if she crossed the street and walked half a mile west, she would find herself in the territory of yet another warlord and, therefore fair game for sniper fire. And this was what Mammy’s heroes were called now. Warlords. Laila heard them called tofangdar too. Riflemen. Others, still called them Mujahideen, but , when they did, they made a face- a sneering, distasteful face-the word reeking of deep aversion and deep scorn. Like an insult.”

  • “Tariq explained to her the treacherous, shifting boundaries within Kabul. Laila learned from him, for instance, that this road, up to the second acacia tree on the left, belonged to one warlord; that the next four blocks, ending with the bakery shop next to the demolished pharmacy, was another warlord’s sector; and that if she crossed the street and walked half a mile west, she would find herself in the territory of yet another warlord and, therefore fair game for sniper fire. And this was what Mammy’s heroes were called now. Warlords. Laila heard them called tofangdar too. Riflemen. Others, still called them Mujahideen, but , when they did, they made a face- a sneering, distasteful face-the word reeking of deep aversion and deep scorn. Like an insult.”



From the evidence provided throughout the presentation, we have concluded that the Mujahideen were not the heroes the people of Afghanistan thought they were going to be.

  • From the evidence provided throughout the presentation, we have concluded that the Mujahideen were not the heroes the people of Afghanistan thought they were going to be.




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