L-19 Part III era of Great Reforms Revolutionary Movement A. Themes New soslovie: revolutionary caste


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L-19 Part III Era of Great Reforms 5. Revolutionary Movement


A. Themes

  • New soslovie: revolutionary caste

  • From ideas to deeds

  • “Populism”

  • Strategies

  • Terrorism

  • Revolutionary situation, 1879-81

  • Counter-revolutionary state



C. New Caste: “Intelligentsia”

  • Precursors

  • New soslovie



Radicals: Social Origins



Radicals: Occupation



Radicals of 1870s: Educational Level



1. “Nihilism” of the 1860s

  • Term, meaning

  • Social significance



2. Theoreticians



Radical Theoreticians: Herzen Bakunin



New Theoretician: N.G. Chernyshevskii



3. “Practicals”:Profile



4. Movement

  • 1861-65 “Proclamationism”

  • 1865-9 Conspiratorial Revolution

  • Ishutin and the “Organization”

  • Nechaev



Student Radicals at SPB University (at Kronshtadt) 1861



Sergei Nechaev



5. State Response

  • New limits on great reforms

  • Repression: generally mild



Dmitrii Karakozov 1866 Arrest, Execution



Narodnichestvo (populism) of the 1870s

  • Etymology

  • Politicization



2. Theoreticians: Three Visions

  • Lavrov: consciousness

  • Bakunin: spontaneity

  • Tkachev: consciousness in lieu of spontaneity



Petr Lavrov



Mikhail Bakunin Petr Kropotkin



Petr Tkachev



1872: Publication of Marx’s Kapital



3. Praktiki: Profile

  • Age: 87% under 30

  • Origin: 72% non-noble

  • Education:

  • 45% less than secondary education

  • 21% no formal education

  • 2% illiterate

  • Occupation: 14% workers

  • Gender: 15% female



Radicals: Social Origins



Radicals of 1870s: Age Structure



Radicals of 1870s: Educational Level



4. Movement: Phases

  • Preparationism, 1869-73

  • Bakuninism, 1874-5 (“to the people”)

  • Land and Freedom, 1876-9

  • People’s Will 1879-81



Group Photo: Populists



A. V. Dolgushin: Leader in “Going to the People”



Ippolit Myshkin



Populist: New Attire



Sofia Perovskaia



Vera Figner



Populist Underground Paper: Narodnaia Volia



“Arrest of Propagandist”



Assassination of Alexander II



1881 Assassination of Alexander II



1886 Sketch: Assassination of Alexander II



5. State Response

  • Administrative measures

  • Increasingly harsh repression



E. Conclusions




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