Presentation: fergana state university science: ingliz tili independent work

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Independent Work


Theme: Historical cities of Uzbekistan
Did it : FSU 22.42 A group student Ahmedova Matluba Irgashevna
Samarkand— A city in Samarkand region. Administrative, economic and cultural center of the region (since 1938). The capital of the Republic in 1925-30. It is located in the south-west of Uzbekistan, in the middle of the Zarafshan valley (between the Dargom and Siyob canals). Average height is 695 m. 300 km from Tashkent. The Tashkent-Dushanbe, Tashkent-Turkmanboshi, Tashkent-Uchkuduq-Kungirot railways, the Great Uzbek tract (Tashkent-Termiz road) pass through it. Residents and farms of the city get water from Shovdar and Bogishamol streams. The average temperature in July is 25.9°, the highest temperature is 40-42°, the average temperature in January is 0.2°, the lowest temperature is 26°. The area is 120 km². The population is 519.6 thousand people (2016); 1975 year
299 thousand, 267 thousand in 1970, 196 thousand in 1959, 136 thousand in 1939, 55 thousand in 1897, 26 thousand in 1865. There are 4 towns belonging to S. City Council (Ingichka, Kimyogarlar, Farhad, Hishrov).

Historical and architectural monuments of Samarkand

  • Ancient Afrosyab settlements (8th century BC)
  • Ulugbek Observatory (1428-1429)
  • Shakhi Zinda
  • Hazrat Hizr Mosque (mid-19th century)
  • Bibi Khanim Mosque (1399-1404)
  • Ulugbek madrasa (1417-1420)
  • Sherdar Madrasah (1619-1635/36)
  • Madrasa Tilla Kori (1647-1659/6
  • Chorsu market (late 18th century)
  • Bibikhanim mausoleum
  • Ruhabad Mausoleum (1380s)
  • Aksaroy Mausoleum (1470)
  • Gori Amir (1404)
  • Prayer Mosque (17th century)
  • Ishrathana Mausoleum (1464)
  • Khoja Ahror ensemble (15-20 centuries)
  • Tomb of the Shepherd (1430-1440)
  • Khoja AbduDurun cemetery (15-19 centuries)

Bukhara - Bukhara is one of the cities of Uzbekistan, the administrative, economic and cultural center of the Bukhara region. The Great Silk Road was one of the major commercial centers. It is located in the south-west of Uzbekistan, in the lower reaches of the Zarafshan River. 616 km from Tashkent. Bukhara is divided into 2 city districts (Fayzulla Khojayev and Textile). The population is 264 thousand people (2001).

The city of Bukhara is one of the famous ancient cities of the East. According to archaeological data, Bukhara was founded in the middle of the 1st millennium BC. The city of Bukhara, located in the lower reaches of the Zarafshan River, and its surrounding areas were very beautiful in ancient times - the world of animals and plants was unique, rich in lakes and running water, and the information in the work "History of Bukhara" by the historian Narshahi confirms this.
The location of the city of Bukhara at the intersection of the Great Silk Road has stimulated the development of crafts (pottery, blacksmithing, coppersmithing, goldsmithing, jewelry, glassmaking, carving, artistic embroidery, etc.) and trade.

Govkushan Complex - Mosque, Tower, Madrasa (16th century)

  • Govkushan Complex - Mosque, Tower, Madrasa (16th century)
  • Khoja Zainuddin Complex (1555)
  • Poi Kalon ensemble (12-14 a.)
  • Labihovuz ensemble (16-17 a.)
  • Kokaldosh madrasa (1568/69)
  • Madrasah of Nadir Devonbegi (1622-23)
  • Rare Devonbegi's House (1620)
  • Ulugbek Madrasah (1417)
  • Madrasah of Abdulaziz Khan (1652)
  • Sayfiddin Boharzi mausoleum (second half of 13th century - 14th century)
  • Bayonkulikhon mausoleum (second half of 14th century, 15th or 16th century)
  • Prayer Mosque (12-16 a)
  • House of Faizabad (1598/99)
  • C minor (1807)
  • Bolohovuz ensemble (early 18th - 20th century)
  • Bola Huz Mosque (1712)
  • Ismail Somani mausoleum (9-10 a.)
  • Chashmai Ayub Mausoleum (1380 or 1384/85)
  • Madrasah of Abdullah Khan (1596/98)
  • Modarikhan Madrasah (1556/57)
  • Baland Mosque (early 16th century)

Historical and architectural
Khiva is the capital of Uzbekistan. one of the cities. According to archaeological data, the city is mil. av. It was founded in the 5th century. His name is the capital of the city. It is related to the Khivaq (Kheyvaq) well located in the Some researchers call the city's name Qad, which is close to the Khorezm language. from Ossetian "Khiauv" - fort, others call this term antique
It is said that it originated from the changed name of the Heykaniq (now Polvonyop) canal, which flowed through the Khiva region from the period (Heikaniq-Kheyvaniq-Kheivaq-Kheva-Khiva). Khorezm's historian Khudoyberdi Koşmuhammad wrote in his 1831 work "Dili Gharayib" about the history of Khorezm. naming his cities, he says, "Another fortress of this country is Qal'ai Raml. This fortress was founded by Sam ibn Nuh, and it is now known as Khivaq."
In folk tales, the creation of the city dates back to the times of Noah. Noah's son Shem dug a well near the future city and thus founded Khiva. Indeed, in Khiva's Ichan fortress, The Khivak well has been preserved.
The first reliable information about Khiva is from the 10th century in Arabic-Persian historical-geographical sources.
Istakhri (930) listed Khiva among the 30 largest cities of that time. U. notes that Khivani is located on the Jurjaniya (Gurganj) road at a distance of 8 farsakhs from Hazorasp. According to Muqaddasi's information, the distance between Khiva and Hazorasp was 8 passes (10 farsakhs). Khiva Yakut Hamavi (13th century), Nizamiddin
It is also mentioned in the works of Shami (14th century) as a city located on the caravan route.

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