Road Infrastructure ppps in Germany: Why Did the f-modell Fail
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2018 IIAS Congress stage-254 question-Full Paper - Contribution complete id-233
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Road Infrastructure PPP In Germany:
Why Did The F model And The A model Fail?
Andreas Knorr, Professor of Economics: Economic and Transport Policy,
German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer, Germany (email@example.com)
Alexander Eisenkopf, Professor of Economic & Transport Policy, Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen, Germany (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The Warnowquerung – a tunnel project near Rostock which opened for traffic in September 2003 – was Germany’s first privately built and operated road infrastructure ever and the first one of the F model type. Only 15 months later, in December 2004, the banks which had contributed 68 per cent of the capital, warned that a bankruptcy of the tunnel operating company would be unavoidable within one year due to the unexpectedly low number of users. A similar F model-based PPP tunnel project near Lübeck, the Herrentunnel, also spectacularly failed to attract the forecast number of users and to reach its financial targets in the process. As for A model PPP, A1 mobil, the operator of one of the four A model pilot projects, has been in serious financial trouble since 2012 with bankruptcy imminent at the time of writing. In contrast to F model PPP, A model PPP are for extensions of existing road infrastructures, e.g. additional lanes on motorways. In this paper, we will identify the causes behind the commercial failure of both projects.
Road infrastructure PPP do not have a long tradition in Germany. There are two alternative variants. The A model is used to increase the capacity of existing, but congested motorways e.g. by adding an extra lane. (A = Ausbau which means extension in English); in its original design, it was only applied to four pilot projects which went online by 2009, while a modified version – the V model (V = Verfügbarkeit which means availability in English) – was introduced afterwards for another PPP batch of up to twelve project. However, A1 mobil, the operator of one of the four A model pilot projects, has been in serious financial trouble since 2012 with bankruptcy imminent at the time of writing. The F model was developed to fund road infrastructure to overcome bottlenecks such as bridges and tunnels (F = Finanzierung which means funding in English). It was only implemented twice so far, and both projects – a tunnel in Lübeck and another in Rostock – both flopped commercially and as role models for road infrastructure PPP in Germany. In this paper, we aim to identify the underlying causes which led to the unfavourable commercial performance of all F model and at least one A model PPP.
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