Robert Burn biography robert Burn and His poetry chapter II. The Motherland in Robert Burn works

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This celebrated address to Scotland’s national dish is probably recited in full more than any other of the Bard’s works, thanks to its starring role at Burns Suppers across the world. Its enduring fame means Burns and this humble dish will be forever linked. Haggis was a popular meal among Scotland’s poor rural folk for centuries, being made up of cheap cuts of nourishing meat that would otherwise be thrown away. Tradition dictates that when chieftains or laird may have had an animal killed for a feast, the offal was passed to the slaughterman as payment. The idea of wasting valuable meat would have been unheard of in Burns’ lifetime.

Another example of the standard Habbie, or ‘Burns stanza’ - the verse form that Burns used in more than 50 of his works. This type of stanza was used frequently by 18th-century Scots poets such as Robert Fergusson, who was a major influence on the Bard. To A Louse, the poet Carol Rumens wrote, “is wonderfully tetchy and jumpy. But as the argument develops, we see that Jeanie’s airs and graces are mocked by her unsavoury guest.”

    1. The cocept of motherland with Robert Burn

Motherland is a place where a cultural, national, or racial identity has formed. The definition can also mean simply one's country of birth. When used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languages, often has ethnic nationalist connotations.
A homeland may also be referred to as a fatherland, or a mother country, depending on the culture and language of the nationality in question. A motherland is a place which someone views as his or her country of origin. It may be someone's native land, as in the place where that person was born, or it may be the home of that person's ancestors. Many people living in foreign cultures feel a strong attachment to the motherland, even people who have never actually set foot in their own motherlands. The term “motherland” is also sometimes used to refer to the origin of a concept or object, as in “America is the motherland of apple pie.” People may also use the word “fatherland” interchangeably with “motherland,” although for some, “fatherland” has negative connotations, as it is sometimes associated with authoritarian regimes. Others contrast the association of “mother” with concepts like nurturing, and “father” with discipline and order, suggesting that a “motherland” literally gives birth to its people, while a fatherland shapes them. You may also hear people referencing the “motherland” when talking about a nation which colonizes another. A colonizing nation is also known as a “metropole,” distinguishing it from its colonies and satellites. For example, some Australians regard England as the motherland, because Britain houses the seat of the Australian government, and many people view Britain as the source of Australian culture. In these instances, colonial citizens may be entitled to special treatment from the motherland, such as passports and the right of return.
Immigrants and minority ethnic groups may become especially involved with their motherlands, because they may feel isolated in the societies they have moved to. In the case of immigrants who transition from radically different cultures, clinging to the motherland can be a way to cope with culture shock, giving the immigrants something to hold on to as they settle into a new culture. Immigrant groups may get together for festivals, parties, and other celebrations of the motherland to ensure that they retain their cultural traditions and values. People descended from immigrants may become interested in the motherland, viewing it as their place of cultural origin. Even when raised entirely in another culture, they may research their motherlands, and intend to visit at some point to learn more about their roots. Oddly enough, such individuals can sometimes become much more nationalistic than their ancestors, because they may be provided with an idealized view of the mother culture. Robert Burns’s poetry was inspired by his deep love for his motherland, for its history and folklore. His beautiful poem My Heart’s in the Highlands, full of vivid colourful descriptions, is a hymn to the beauty of Scotland’s nature and to its glorious past. He admires the green valleys, “mountains high covered with snow, and wild hanging woods”. He calls his country “the birthplace of valour, the country of worth”. In Burns’s poems nature forms part of people’s life, though he does not personify it. Address to Edinburgh is a hymn to the common Scottish people. Burns’s poetry is closely connected with the national struggle of the Scottish people for their liberation from English oppression, the struggle that had been going on in Scotland for many centuries. His favourite national hero is William Wallace (1270—1305), the leader of the uprising against the English oppressors.
The Scottish people led by William Wallace and Robert Bruce (1274—1329), King of Scotland, overthrew the English army in the battle at Bannockburn (a burn is a small stream) in 1314 and secured Scottish independence. Bruce at Bannockburn is one of the best poems by Burns. It is the poet’s call to his people to keep up the free domloving spirit of their fathers. Robert Burns is a true son of the Scottish peasantry. His poems express their thoughts and hopes, their human dignity, and their love of freedom and hatred for all oppressors. In his poem A Man’s A Man For A’That Burns says that it is not wealth and titles, but the excellent qualities of man’s heart that make “a man for a’that” (=all that). The poet praises the healthy, happy, wise Scottish peasant, who in his shabby clothes is worth a score of lords, however fine. Titles and riches are not enough to make people happy. Many verses of the poet were inspired by the French Revolution which he supported with all his heart. In his poem The Tree of Liberty Burns praised the French revolutionaries who planted “The Tree of Liberty” in their country. In this poem Burns expresses his belief that the time will come when all the people will be equal and happy. In spite of his poverty, hunger and never- ceasing toil, Burns was an optimist. He enjoyed life as few of his contemporaries did. The poem John Barleycorn expresses Burns’ optimism. It tells of the way people prepare whiskey. The poem is symbolic in its meaning. John Barleycorn personifies the strength of the common people which is immortal and cannot be done away with. Three kings wanted to kill John Barleycorn. However, all their efforts were in vain.John Barleycorn was not dead, as his joyful spirit was alive in those who had a chance “to taste his blood”. Burns was a remarkable lyric poet. His lyrical poems are known for their beauty, truthfulness, freshness, depth of feelings and lovely melody. Many of Burns’s lyrical poems have been put to music and are sung by all English-speaking people.


People descended from immigrants may become interested in the motherland, viewing it as their place of cultural origin. Even when raised entirely in another culture, they may research their motherlands, and intend to visit at some point to learn more about their roots. Oddly enough, such individuals can sometimes become much more nationalistic than their ancestors, because they may be provided with an idealized view of the mother culture. While national identity may or may not be based on ethnicity, it always contains a territorial component. An ethnic group becomes “national” when it recognizes a particular territory as one that it has a right to con- trol politically. The development of a sense of homeland and an emotional attachment to that homeland coincides with the development of national selfconsciousness.
Scholars have asserted that “for a nation to exist, it must have some place that it can claim as its own”6 and “nations cannot be conceived without a specific territory or homeland.”7 Thus, to understand a particular group’s idea of homeland one must understand its political and social conduct and its relations with a national “other.” An individual or group can have several possible homelands. The first is an external homeland, in which case a minority does not consider any part of its state of residence to be its homeland but instead views some region or state outside its country of residence as the group’s true homeland. This is the focus of Brubaker’s work on the role of home- land in postcommunist ethnic relations.8 Such a situation would not or- dinarily fuel secessionist claims, though it could lead the government of the external homeland to intervene on behalf of the minority group. If there is a legitimate basis for claims of discrimination, the external homeland may put diplomatic, economic, or military pressure on the minority’s state of residence to protect the minority from discrimination.

  1. O'Hagan, A: "The People's Poet", The Guardian, 19 January 2008.

  2. ^ "Scotland's National Bard". Scottish Executive. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 10 June2009.[permanent dead link]

  3. ^ "Hall of Fame: Robert Burns (1759-1796)". National Records of Scotland. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2018.

  4. ^ "Burnes, William". The Burns Encyclopedia. Retrieved 25 April 2011.

  5. ^ "Robert Burns 1759 – 1796". The Robert Burns World Federation. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2011.

  6. ^ "Mauchline kirk session records, National Archives of Scotland". 'The Legacy of Robert Burns' feature on the National Archives of Scotland website. National Archives of Scotland. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009.

  7. ^ Crawford, Robert (30 April 2011). The Bard. Random House. pp. 222–223. ISBN 9781446466407. Retrieved 26 March 2018.; Leask, Nigel (25 June 2009). "Burns and the Poetics of Abolition". In Carruthers, Gerard (ed.). Edinburgh Companion to Robert Burns. Edinburgh University Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780748636501.; "Letter of Charles Douglas to Patrick Douglas dated Port Antonio 19th June 1786 (page 3 of 3) - Burns Scotland". Retrieved 26 March 2018.

  8. ^ a b c "Highland Mary (Mary Campbell)". Famous Sons and Daughters of Greenock. Nostalgic Greenock. Archived from the original on 20 February 2010. Retrieved 17 January 2010.

  9. ^ "Feature on The Poet Robert Burns". Robert Burns History. 13 January 2004. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009.

  10. ^ "Folkin' For Jamaica: Sly, Robbie and Robert Burns". The Play Ethic. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2009.

  11. ^ "The myth of Scottish slaves", Stephen Mullan, published March 4, 2016, accessed 22 June 2021.










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