Started in Baghdad and branched


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Started in Baghdad and branched

  • Started in Baghdad and branched

  • in its infant stage: slave entertainment and communication is main purpose.

  • The group of slave singers were referred to as “quynat.”

  • later performed to entertain Arabic royalty, who patronized the musicians in later generations.





Western music known for static meter and polyphony

  • Western music known for static meter and polyphony

  • Arabic music does not utilize polyphony

  • Western music follows the seven Church Modes

  • Arabic music’s one mode of maqâm (comprised of quarter and half tones)

  • Arabic music is performed primarily by up to six instruments

  • Western music performed by larger groups



common theme is love

  • common theme is love

  • Performed in groups: the “takht” for Arabic music and various types of musical performing groups (i.e. orchestras, bands, etc.)



Similar to the lute in the family of chordophones

  • Similar to the lute in the family of chordophones

  • Allegedly created by the grandson of the first man, Adam, named Lamak

  • assumed its final form in Spain by Ziryab

  • During Moorish Period (711-1492)



Also referred to as the Zither

  • Also referred to as the Zither

  • descendent of the Egyptian harp

  • Meaning “law” in Arabic; sets the law for what pitch the singer and other instruments must play in

  • consists of eighty one strings

  • plucked either by finger or through plectrums on the forefingers

  • strings are divided in 3-string groups consisting of 24 treble chords and thus 3 chords to every note

  • Levers are used to switch between maqâms.



meaning “reed” in Farsi

  • meaning “reed” in Farsi

  • made from cane

  • comes in different lengths according to a specific pitch arrangement

  • has six holes, played with the fingers and specific technique of bilabial airing much like a reed instrument

  • the most difficult and challenging instrument to play in the takht

  • timbre adds a mellow and warm color to the rest of the arrangement



resembles a small tambourine

  • resembles a small tambourine

  • traditionally made with goat or fish skin, producing a warm sound

  • sensitive to humidity

  • maintains the tempo of the piece as well as the dynamics.



The buzuq is a fretted instrument of Turkish origins. It commonly consists of steel strings, in two courses: the double (C4) and triple (G3). The bright tone of the buzuq often add a lightened mood to Arabic music often set in a minor tone, and thus it is commonly a solo instrument for its unique sound and offset intonation when in comparison to other instruments in the maqâm. This instrument is not traditionally a part of the takht, but is a crucial component of Lebanese music.

  • The buzuq is a fretted instrument of Turkish origins. It commonly consists of steel strings, in two courses: the double (C4) and triple (G3). The bright tone of the buzuq often add a lightened mood to Arabic music often set in a minor tone, and thus it is commonly a solo instrument for its unique sound and offset intonation when in comparison to other instruments in the maqâm. This instrument is not traditionally a part of the takht, but is a crucial component of Lebanese music.



resembles a goblet drum

  • resembles a goblet drum

  • known as the “doumbek” in modern times

  • produces a sharp and minute tone when struck

  • like the riq, it is made with either goat or fish skin.



Takht Instruments



8th – 9th century A.D.: Origins

  • 8th – 9th century A.D.: Origins

  • 661 – 750 A.D.: The Umayyad Empire

  • 711 – 1492 A.D.: The Moorish Period

  • 750 – 909 A.D.: The Abbasid Empire

  • 1517 – 1917 A.D.: The Ottoman Turks Influence



began to be patronized during the Ottoman rule (1517 – 1917)

  • began to be patronized during the Ottoman rule (1517 – 1917)

  • became a profession

  • Musicians were referred to as:



All methods performed according to the maqâm

  • All methods performed according to the maqâm

  • melodic development in which modulation is induced

  • Different sized nays determine key and mood of the song



unique use of one mode as opposed to the seven western church modes

  • unique use of one mode as opposed to the seven western church modes

  • melodic progression or development

  • No polyphony

  • Performing groups comprised of 6+ instruments

  • Traditional aspects have not changed in modern music



The structure of chords represented by “jins” (plural form “ajnas”)

  • The structure of chords represented by “jins” (plural form “ajnas”)

  • referring to chords such as tetrachords, trichords and pentachords whose identities are determined by a specific maqâm

  • The maqâm is the mode that all classical and traditional Arabic music abide by



Traditional Arabic (Lebanese) music sample: Shatty Ya Dinyaa – Fairuz

  • Traditional Arabic (Lebanese) music sample: Shatty Ya Dinyaa – Fairuz



Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky – “Marche Slave”

  • Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky – “Marche Slave”



Born – May 7th, 1840 in Kamasko-Votkinsk, Russia

  • Born – May 7th, 1840 in Kamasko-Votkinsk, Russia

  • Died November 6th, 1893, St. Petersburg, Russia

  • Romantic Period (1820-1910)

  • Famous for the Nutcracker ballet, Swan Lake ballet, etc.

  • Composed conciertos for the piano and violin



For the Nutcracker Ballet: Arabian Dance

  • For the Nutcracker Ballet: Arabian Dance

    • One of the dances in the Land of Sweets: Arabian = The Coffee among the sweets
    • Marius Petipa, original choreographer, demanded Arabian dance in the ballet
    • One of Petipa’s most famous ballet titled, “The Pharaoh’s Daughter”
      • Romantic ballet in which an Englishman falls asleep smoking opium in a pyramid during a storm, and dreams of love with an Egyptian princess/heiress named Aspicia.


Arabian Dance written based on a Georgian lullaby

  • Arabian Dance written based on a Georgian lullaby

    • Georgia is bordered by Russia, Azerbaijan, south of Armenia and southwest of Turkey
    • Music from Georgia was inevitably influenced by Arabic traditional musical themes from Islam and the various Persian Empires (536 BCE-CE 638)
    • The use of the traditional lullaby is an indirect influence of Arabian music
  • Petipa studied choreography in Spain in 1845, where dancing has been influenced by Arabic traditional music and dance



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyotr_Ilyich_Tchaikovsky

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyotr_Ilyich_Tchaikovsky

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_music

  • http://www.tradebit.com/filedetail.php/1240683-tchaikovsky

  • http://www.emusic.com/album/Arabesque-Traditional-Arabic-Music-MP3-Download/10589315.html

  • http://www.indianchild.com/arabic_music_mp3_songs_downloads.htm

  • http://www.firdaous.com/en/?9-a

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgia_(country)



http://www.maqamworld.com/instruments.html 

  • http://www.maqamworld.com/instruments.html 

  • http://www.rhythmuseum.com/egyptian/darbouka.html

  • www.rainbowcrystal.com/music/music6.html

  • http://trumpet.sdsu.edu/m345/arab_music1.html

  • http://www.allisonsdancecentre.com/framework.php?pageName=23162674583&id=215

  • http://www.olympicballet.com/performances/nutcracker-story.html

  • http://www.emergingpictures.com/pharoahs_daughter.htm 

  • http://www.abt.org/education/archive/choreographers/petipa_m.html






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