Studying and Building Memories


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Studying and Building Memories

  • Studying and Building Memories

  • Memory Storage and Retrieval

  • Forgetting, Memory Construction, and Memory Improvement

  • Thinking, Concepts, and Creativity

  • Solving Problems and Making Decisions

  • Thinking and Language





























































































































































































































































































= the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage and retrieval of information.

  • = the persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage and retrieval of information.



= the processing of information into the memory systems – for example, by extracting meaning.

  • = the processing of information into the memory systems – for example, by extracting meaning.



= the process of retaining encoded information over time.

  • = the process of retaining encoded information over time.



= the process of getting information out of memory storage.

  • = the process of getting information out of memory storage.



= the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.

  • = the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions. Contrasts with the step-by-step (serial) processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving.



= the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.

  • = the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.



= activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten.

  • = activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten.



= the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

  • = the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.



= a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.

  • = a newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.



= memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory)

  • = memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (Also called declarative memory)



= encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

  • = encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.



= unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

  • = unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.



= retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory)

  • = retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called nondeclarative memory)



= a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

  • = a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.



= a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.

  • = a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.



= organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.

  • = organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.



= memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.

  • = memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.



= the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

  • = the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.



= enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.

  • = enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading information. Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.



= encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.

  • = encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words.



= encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.

  • = encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention.



= a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.

  • = a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.



= a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

  • = a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.



= an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

  • = an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.



= a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learning earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.

  • = a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learning earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.



= a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.

  • = a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.



= a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.

  • = a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again.



= the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.

  • = the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.



= the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.

  • = the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.



= our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect) and first items (a primacy effect) in a list.

  • = our tendency to recall best the last (a recency effect) and first items (a primacy effect) in a list.



= an inability to form new memories.

  • = an inability to form new memories.



= an inability to retrieve information from one’s past.

  • = an inability to retrieve information from one’s past.



= the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

  • = the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.



= the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.

  • = the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.



= in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.

  • = in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.



= incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.

  • = incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event.



= attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.

  • = attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.



= that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.

  • = that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.



= the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.

  • = the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.



= a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.

  • = a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.



= a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).

  • = a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to a prototype provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).



= the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.

  • = the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.



= narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution.

  • = narrows the available problem solutions to determine the single best solution.



= expands the number of possible problem solutions (creativity thinking that diverges in different directions).

  • = expands the number of possible problem solutions (creativity thinking that diverges in different directions).



= a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier – but also more error-prone – use of heuristics.

  • = a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier – but also more error-prone – use of heuristics.



= a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.

  • = a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.



= a sudden realization of a problem’s solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.

  • = a sudden realization of a problem’s solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.



= a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.

  • = a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence.



= a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.

  • = a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.



= an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.

  • = an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.



= judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.

  • = judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.



= estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common

  • = estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common



= the tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.

  • = the tendency to be more confident than correct – to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.



= clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited.

  • = clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they are formed has been discredited.



= the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.

  • = the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgements.



= our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.

  • = our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.



= in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.

  • = in language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.



= in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).

  • = in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).



= in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.

  • = in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others. In a given language, semantics is the set of rules for deriving meaning from sounds, and syntax is the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.



= beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.

  • = beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.



= the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.

  • = the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.



= beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.

  • = beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.



= early speech state in which a child speaks like a telegram – “go car” – using mostly nouns and verbs.

  • = early speech state in which a child speaks like a telegram – “go car” – using mostly nouns and verbs.



= impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding).

  • = impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impairing understanding).



= controls language expression – an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.

  • = controls language expression – an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech.



= controls language reception – a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.

  • = controls language reception – a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe.



= Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think.

  • = Whorf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think.




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