The dangers of nature and food


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The dangers of nature and food

  • The dangers of nature and food

  • Gene inactivation strategies

  • Manipulating crops (toxins)

  • Manipulating crops (allergens)

  • Transgenic vs. classical approaches

  • Consequences & conclusions

  • Most of the material presented is the work published by other groups



























































Used as feed for ruminant animals (whole seeds or meal after oil extraction)

  • Used as feed for ruminant animals (whole seeds or meal after oil extraction)

  • 44 million metric tons (Mt) of cottonseed (9.4 Mt of protein)

  • Could fulfill protein requirements of half a billion people each year (50 g/day rate)























































Glucosinolates are sulphur rich compounds from brassicas

  • Glucosinolates are sulphur rich compounds from brassicas

  • Some beneficial, other toxic (quantity!)

  • Upon wounding are converted into toxic products

  • Regulators identified (two branches)

  • Mutants isolated













Reduction in pesticide content (a corollary of crop domestication) is not without consequences!

  • Reduction in pesticide content (a corollary of crop domestication) is not without consequences!

  • General pesticides (e.g. cyanide) are worse for humans than specific ones (es. Bt)

  • Eat the pesticides you prefer (natural does not imply safer)



Widespread occurrence

  • Widespread occurrence

  • You may not know it until you experience it

  • Nuisance / cost / deadly threat

  • Minute amounts of allergens may cause a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction

  • May occur after ingestion, skin contact, injection of an allergen or inhalation.

  • 48 deaths caused by food over a 7-year period between 1999 and 2006 in UK





Apple

  • Apple

  • Peanut

  • Wheat (celiac disease)

  • Soybean

  • Ryegrass

  • Birch



















Support or material from colleagues and friends (especially Parrot, Gressel Kershen, Salamini, Fico, Vitale, Ederle, Maggiore, Petroni, Rossi…)

  • Support or material from colleagues and friends (especially Parrot, Gressel Kershen, Salamini, Fico, Vitale, Ederle, Maggiore, Petroni, Rossi…)

  • Confidential information or help with literature (Gilissen, Bisht, Rathore, Shah, Carputo, Parisi, Faquet …)

  • The support of the CSBA (access to specific books) and Univ. of Milan



Carlini and Grossi-de-Sa´ (2002) Toxicon 40:1515–1539

  • Carlini and Grossi-de-Sa´ (2002) Toxicon 40:1515–1539

  • R Koes et al. (1995) Targeted gene inactivation in petunia by PCR-based selection of transposon insertion mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 92:8149-8153.

  • Hamilton AJ, Baulcombe DC (1999) A species of small antisense RNA in posttranscriptional gene silencing in plants. Science 286: 950–952

  • Batista

  • Napoli et al. (1990) Introduction of a Chimeric Chalcone Synthase Gene into Petunia Results in Reversible Co-Suppression of Homologous Genes in trans. Plant Cell. 2:279-289

  • van der Kroll et al. (1988) An anti-sense chalcone synthase gene in transgenic plants inhibits flower pigmentation Nature 333:866-869





Lenape: Name of potato variety Lenape withdrawn . Am. J. Potato Res. (1970) 47:103 http://www.springerlink.com/content/a6k677974316541m/fulltext.pdf?page=1

  • Lenape: Name of potato variety Lenape withdrawn . Am. J. Potato Res. (1970) 47:103 http://www.springerlink.com/content/a6k677974316541m/fulltext.pdf?page=1

  • Herrington (1983) Intense Bitterness in Commercial Zucchini. Cucurbit Genetics Cooperative Report 6:75-76 http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cgc/cgc06/cgc6-38.html

  • Sharma (2006) Bottle Gourd Poisoning. Journal of Medical Education & Research, 8:120-121. ISSN 0972-1177. http://openmed.nic.in/1710/01/r.letter.pdf

  • Browning S, Hodges L. Cucumber crop information: Bitterness in Zucchini Squash and cucumber. http://cuke.hort.ncsu.edu/cucurbit/cuke/cukehndbk/cukebitterness.html

  • Finkelstein et al., (1994) An outbreak of phytophotodermatitis due to celery. Int. J. Dermatol.33:116-8.

  • Fleming (1990) Dermatitis in grocery workers associated with high natural concentrations of furanocoumarins in celery. Allergy Proc. 11:125-7.

  • Berkley et al., (1986) Dermatitis in grocery workers associated with high natural concentrations of furanocoumarins in celery. Ann Intern Med. 105:351-5.

  • Ames et al., (1990) Dietary pesticides (99.99% all natural). Proc. Nad. Acad. Sci. USA 87:7777-7781.

  • Ames B.N., Profet M., and Gold L. S. (1990) Nature's chemicals and synthetic chemicals: comparative toxicology. PNAS 87:19 7782-7786.







Campion et al., (2009) Isolation and characterisation of an lpa (low phytic acid) mutant in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2009 Feb 18.

  • Campion et al., (2009) Isolation and characterisation of an lpa (low phytic acid) mutant in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2009 Feb 18.

  • Shi et al. (2007) Embryo-specific silencing of a transporter reduces phytic acid content of maize and soybean seeds Nature Biotechnology 25, 930-937

  • Doria et al. (2009) Phytic acid prevents oxidative stress in seeds: evidence from a maize (Zea mays L.) low phytic acid mutant. J Exp Bot. 60:967-78.







E. N. Clare Mills (Editor), Peter R. Shewry (Editor) "Plant Food Allergens“ (2005) Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN-10: 0632059826

  • E. N. Clare Mills (Editor), Peter R. Shewry (Editor) "Plant Food Allergens“ (2005) Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN-10: 0632059826

  • Gilissen et al., (2005) Silencing the major apple allergen Mal d 1 by using the RNA interference approachJ. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 115:364-369

  • Gao et al. (2008) Assessment of allelic diversity in intron-containing Mal d 1 genes and their association to apple allergenicity. BMC Plant Biology 8:116

  • Herman et al., (2003) Targeted gene silencing removes an immunodominant allergen from soybean seeds. Plant Physiol. 132:36-43

  • Herman E. (2005) Soybean Allergenicity and Suppression of the Immunodominant Allergen. Crop Sci. 45:462–467

  • Schenk M. (2008) Birch pollen allergy: molecular characterization and hypoallergenic products. Ph.D. thesis (Wageningen University). ISBN 978-90-8504-873-2

  • Pumphrey RS, Gowland MH. Further fatal allergic reactions to food in the United Kingdom, 1999-2006. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:1018-9.

  • Anaphylactic shock: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XC0nHFblLcE

  • Yaklich, R., R. Helm, and E. Herman. 1999. Analysis of the distribution of the major soybean allergen in a core collection of Glycine max accessions. Crop Sci. 39:1444–1447.

  • Joseph L.M., Hymowitz T., Schmidt M.A. and Herman E. M. (2006) Evaluation of Glycine Germplasm for Nulls of the Immunodominant Allergen P34/Gly m Bd 30k. Crop Sci 46:1755-1763



Cassava poisoning

  • Cassava poisoning

  • http://www.aciar.gov.au/project/CS2/1990/007

  • http://www.cfs.gov.hk/english/multimedia/multimedia_pub/multimedia_pub_fsf_19_01.html

  • Teles FF. (2002) Chronic poisoning by hydrogen cyanide in cassava and its prevention in Africa and Latin America. Food Nutr Bull. 23:407-12.

  • Oluwole et al., (2000) Persistence of tropical ataxic neuropathy in a Nigerian community. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 69:96-101.

  • http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/_srcfiles/28_Cyanogenic_glycosides.pdf

  • (glucosidi cianogenici)

  • http://www.ripper.com.au/~enneking/pdf/pdf-Famine-in-Afghanistan-threat-of-a-new-lathyrism-epidemic.pdf (Lathyrism)

  • http://encyclopedia.farlex.com/cassava (Cassava)



www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/index.html

  • www.botgard.ucla.edu/html/botanytextbooks/economicbotany/index.html

  • Poisoning

  • http://www.biomedexperts.com/Abstract.bme/17560071/Acute_Datura_stramonium_poisoning_in_an_emergency_department

  • http://www.uni-sz.bg/tsj/Vo4No3_1/Binev%202.pdf










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