There are some types of data base models

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Abdrashid Bekmullin BIS Main Exam

Section A


Firstly, what we understand, when we have information or knowledge; information, it is the data or some facts that given in context; knowledge, it is information that is relevant to something or objective information that is gained through experience. The main difference between them, it is that information easily transfers between people or various sources, and do not need to learn it, nevertheless, knowledge is requires learning, researches or some experience. There is just context or data in information, on the other hand knowledge is constructed from information, experience, intuition and learning. By way of conclusion I would like to say that all information need not to be knowledge, all knowledge is information.


There are some characteristics of Knowledge Management Systems (KMSs): Evolution, Collaboration, Connection, Codification, and Technical issues.

Development, Collaboration, Connection, Codification, and Technical issues. Advancement by meeting worker's needs, what's more, needs as they are influenced by the most recent advancements, for example, long range interpersonal communication instruments that they use in their day by day life. Along these lines, it will be simple and agreeable for them to move the applications that they use in their own lives to their work. Cooperation will empower individuals to cooperate, it happens when social associations are built up. Association will guarantee utilizing intelligent apparatuses to be refreshed with news that occur in their MNC and the world. Codification will systematize information in an express structure so it is effectively open by representatives. Specialized apparatuses of KMS take into account quick KS where information can undoubtedly be available all over the place and empowering clients to alter it as indicated by their necessities.


There are some types of data base models:

Flat model. In the level database model, there is a solitary two-dimensional exhibit of the information components in which sections are accepted to have a comparable kind of qualities and in the line, the components ought to have social worth social to each other. For instance, there are two sections named as name and secret phrase which can be utilized by any security framework. So each line is utilized to store various passwords and usernames. No two section is the equivalent in the level model. In the level model, the table configuration is utilized for putting away the database. This database model has an inconvenience as it can't store tremendous pieces of information in the two-dimensional exhibit since it is hard to oversee such a huge arrangement of sections in a level database model.

Hierarchical model.

In the progressive model, the information is put away in the tree-like structure in which there is a root hub where the information is begun to store. The sort field is utilized for the kin record to keep up some request while putting away information in the various leveled model. The various leveled database model is generally utilized when there is a requirement for keeping up a data the board framework. In this database model there exist a one-to-numerous relationship among information. The recovery of information has an alternate method in the various leveled model. The procedure follows exploring a descending heading utilizing the pointers with the goal that information can be gotten to successively. As a result of this method, the various leveled database model has a drawback as it isn't equipped for taking care of a wide range of database activities. The recovery time of information is more contrast with different kinds of database models. The records are not associated with the various leveled model. Furthermore, the model comprises of an upward connection that is utilized to speak to the pecking order of information put away in the database framework.

Network model.

The network structure database model has a fundamentally the same as structure when contrasted with the progressive model. This model permits a many-to-numerous relationship in the tree-like structure model. It implies there can be different guardians. The system model uses the two major ideas for example establishes and precedents. The records contain document which can be in progressive structure and sets which are utilized to characterize the many-to-numerous relationship among the records. The set uses the roundabout connected rundown as the information structure in which one record which is a parent can show up once around and the offspring of that specific parent can show up more than once in each circle. In the system database model, the records are associated with one another. As such, the chain of command is kept up among the records. The information access in this database model is either in consecutive frame or can be in a roundabout connected rundown design. Also, there can be numerous ways to access to a specific record. The hindrance of this system model is that it contains repetition among the records which implies one record can show up more than one time in the database model.

Relational model.

The social database model is intended to expel the reliance in the database the board framework. The improvement of the social database model is focused for generally microcomputer frameworks. The three keys which are utilized in social database models are spaces, traits, and relations. The connection is characterized as a table that contains lines and segments. The segments present in the table are called qualities in the social database model. Furthermore, the space is characterized as a lot of qualities that can be embedded in the database model. The information structure utilized is a table in this model and the information is put away as lines and segments in the model. The columns are otherwise called tuples. For instance, there is a connection named representative subtleties. It can have different properties like name, age, sexual orientation. Also, there can be numerous tuples for one single connection named as representative subtleties. The key which can be utilized to interestingly distinguish any line is known as the essential key. Also, these keys can be utilized to join more than one table simultaneously. For instance, there can be a section named area in the worker table and the segment area can be the essential key of the area table. By this key, the two table area table and representative table can join and the tasks can be performed on the join table. The social database model uses the organized question language (SQL) to perform procedure on the database framework. The social model contains different tables which appear as though level database model. One of the key favorable circumstances of this model is at whatever point the worth shows up more than on time in two distinct records there exist a few connections among them.




The Enterprise Application Integration is a great method to have full oversight of your organization. This is because of the way that data the board is improved since it offers a general vision, making it conceivable to have full information on what happens in it, on account of its various instruments. At the point when you own an organization or involve a higher position, the whole system of associations, extending from programming data to angles identified with representatives, can be overseen and controlled.


On the off chance that there is one thing wherein EAI innovations stick out, it is in the smoothing out and rearrangements of all organization forms. It doesn't make a difference if the IT structure is intricate or if there are numerous applications that are nonconcurrent with one another. The drawn out procedures or informing and the connection among applications and programming are a piece of the incorporation procedure of WSO2. For this reason, they depend on components as significant as middleware.


The execution of EAI advances is likewise an incredible assistance for the decrease of expenses inside the organization. An away from of this is the joining of old and new programming: since there is no compelling reason to erase the previous, there are less speculations. Also, on account of the joining of business applications it is conceivable to create new administrations and items that can be actualized inside and remotely. Over the long haul, this is an incredible assistance to spare at each cost.


At the point when the various pieces of an organization are coordinated, just as their particular applications and IT structure, the data trade is a lot more All representatives of the organization can approach the information and programming utilized there. This forestalls duplication of data, so the structure works better and with significantly more effectiveness.


The coordination of various programming frameworks takes into account all business data to be concentrated, making crafted by any worker a lot less difficult. This outcomes in a decrease of the fundamental time and endeavors to perform assignments. EAI permits huge scope undertakings, which typically reach out over significant stretches of work, to be cultivated in less time. In this manner, the organization works ideally and superfluous assignments are removed. With the assistance of WSO2, for example, the organization's creation is improved and the capacity to smooth out and screen business issues is greatly improved.


On account of the usage of EAI advances, it is conceivable to improve upper hands and openings contrasted with the various organizations working as rivalry. For the individuals who apply it, business reconciliation assumes a significant job in starting to lead the pack. Truth be told, when an organization has a poor IT structure, its profitability diminishes and may, therefore, endure enormous misfortunes. Regardless, when EAI advancements are applied, the ability to take care of issues is improved, and creation isn't just significantly expanded yet in addition increasingly effective. It even infers an upper hand. Its administration can be created in angles, for example, advertising, which over the long haul will give your organization more prominent perceivability in the business world.


The doing of the distinctive business forms additionally envelops business scope. With EAI it is a lot simpler to follow and break down them in order to see how they work and how to control them. It gives different examination models that help screen each business activity. WSO2 is an extraordinary case, since it permits the mechanization of any procedure paying little heed to its multifaceted nature, or regardless of whether it changes continually. Essentially, EAI innovations can adjust to any procedure, which implies that they can help the organization consistently with their examination and observing. Venture Application Integration is right now perhaps the most ideal approaches to have command over any organization and make it substantially more gainful. Advances' improvement appears to be relentless, so it is fundamental to utilize them for the whole business process as they help it to adjust. WSO2 has permitted these advancements to arrive at new levels. The checking of business activities and the coordination of utilizations and programming are an extraordinary assistance in numerous regions. Therefore, it is so important to mull over them. In the event that you need to start strolling down the way of Enterprise Application Integration, at that point you are in the correct spot! At Chakray, we depend in our group of counselors to help you previously, during and after your undertaking. Reach us without commitment!


For organizations that consider workers their most important resources, HRM has outrageous worth. In the most broad sense, HRM inspires laborers to perform at the most significant level conceivable and keep up a hierarchical culture of high assurance. HR inspires laborers to perform at the most significant level conceivable and keep up an authoritative culture of high confidence. An essential way HR enhances an organization is by convincing organization pioneers to prepare and create representatives and prize solid execution through expanded pay and normal advancements. An all around run HR division deals with a fundamental connect to organization achievement, quality laborers and remarkable execution. The drawn out progress and budgetary execution of an organization is normally legitimately related to the gifts, inspiration and achievements of its kin. Individuals make and sell items, work with clients and team up on choices. An essential way HR enhances an organization is by advancing this connection and convincing organization pioneers to prepare and create workers and prize solid execution through expanded remuneration and customary advancements.


An accounting information system takes all the information and figures from an association's money related records and organizes them into a systematic structure.

There are some functions of that:

Assortment and Processing

In the assortment period of a bookkeeping data framework, bookkeepers or accountants assemble and record information from money deals, receivables, money buys, payables and finance, among different exchanges. In electronic frameworks, the product program forms all the charges and credits into a total data the board database.

Reports for Management

Bookkeeping faculty disseminate reports to chiefs inside the association, for example, deals and showcasing directors, creation supervisors, budgetary administrators and all office heads. The board utilizes the data produced from the bookkeeping data framework to investigate the association's present tasks and budgetary condition and make arrangements and set objectives for what's to come. For instance, an accounting report made from the framework can show the board, proprietors, loan bosses and speculators where the association stands monetarily at a specific point in time.

Exactness and Security

Constraining the quantity of individuals who approach the framework best achieves the third capacity of a bookkeeping data framework - to guarantee that the business keeps up right information safely. The pioneers of the association must choose who that is destined to be. For instance, prepared agents, clerks or bookkeepers expect access to confirm and enter information into the framework and produce reports. Different partners of the association, both interior and outside, by and large have no compelling reason to control the information.

Kinds of Systems and What's Included

Organizations regularly automate a bookkeeping data framework in everything except the littlest associations. PC clients enter information into programming programs that total the computations and group and document the passages into the best possible classes. The framework would then be able to create different sorts of reports, contingent upon the client's solicitation. The data framework remembers all means for the bookkeeping cycle, and printed version desk work that demonstrates the exchanges, for example, work requests, solicitations and budget summaries turns out to be a piece of the framework. In littler organizations, for example, a mother and-pop activity where not many exchanges happen, the business may keep up the bookkeeping data framework physically. Once more, the clerk utilizes the whole bookkeeping cycle and builds manual reports from the outcomes.


DSS provide specific capabilities that support one or more tasks related to decision-making, including: intelligence and data analysis; identification and design of alternatives; choice among alternatives; and decision implementation. The investigation proposes the model comprising of DSS abilities also a DSS support for center capabilities and their impact on firm execution dependent on the Resource-based perspective on the organization. Unequivocally, the significance of DSS arranging complexity, DSS improvement capacities, DSS bolster development and DSS activities ability is connected to essential DSS capabilities identified with advertise get to, trustworthiness related and usefulness related skills. The skills affect working execution and market-based execution by means of the intervening the job of absorptive limit.


The aim of information encryption is to secure computerized information privacy as it is put away on PC frameworks and transmitted utilizing the web or other PC systems. The obsolete information encryption standard (DES) has been supplanted by present day encryption calculations that assume a basic job in the security of IT frameworks and correspondences. These calculations give secrecy and drive key security activities including validation, trustworthiness, and non-revocation. Validation takes into consideration the confirmation of a message's starting point, and respectability gives evidence that a message's substance have not changed since it was sent. Moreover, non-revocation guarantees that a message sender can't deny sending the message.


Technology Platform.

The stage engineering is the mechanical center that permits the ideal administration of data. ... Limit with respect to quick advancement and adjustment to changes dependent on reusable segments, and freedom of the basic mechanical framework.

Data Resources.\

Section B



Ethical issues confront individuals who must choose a course of action, often in a situation in which two or more ethical principles are in conflict (a dilemma). Social issues spring from ethical issues as societies develop expectations in individuals about the correct course of action. Political issues spring from social conflict and are mainly concerned with using laws that prescribe behavior to create situations in which individuals behave correctly.

For example:

We can identify issues surrounding the five moral dimensions of the information age. These include: information rights and obligations, property rights and obligations, accountability and control, system quality, and quality of life.


The main difference between responsibility and accountability is that responsibility can be shared while accountability cannot. Being accountable not only means being responsible for something but also ultimately being answerable for your actions. Also, accountability is something you hold a person to only after a task is done or not done. Responsibility can be before or after a task. Liability for one’s actions means that one can rightly be made to pay for the adverse effects of ones actions on othersAutomobile liability insurance is intended to cover the costs of damage to other persons or propertyWe are usually liable for such payments as long as we are causally responsible, even if our actions were unintentionalLiability, does not necessarily involve moral responsibility for the action.


There are 6 key ethical principles:

1) Autonomy-Self determination and right to freedom of choice

2) Nonmaleficence-To do no harm

3) Beneficence-To do good or provide a benefit


5)Veracity- To tell the truth

6)Confidentiality-Never revealing any personal information about the patient
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