Tilshunoslikda tadqiqot metodlari haqida tushuncha. Metod, metodika va metodologiya tushunchalari tavsifi An understanding of research methods in linguistics. Description of the concepts of method, methodology and methodology Plan

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Lecture1Lingvistik tahlil

Lecture 1
Tilshunoslikda tadqiqot metodlari haqida tushuncha. Metod, metodika va metodologiya tushunchalari tavsifi
An understanding of research methods in linguistics. Description of the concepts of method, methodology and methodology
1) Linguistic study of the classification of languages
2) Genealogical classification of languages. Typological (morphological) classification of languages.
3) The main goals of linguistic typology. System of language symbols
Any researcher, while conducting scientific research on a specific topic, first of all, relies on a certain methodology and uses scientific research methods that are available to realize his goal.
There is no scientific work without methodology and research method. Therefore, the concepts of scientific research methodology and method occupy a central place in science. Therefore, every researcher should have a good knowledge of research methodology and methods, and the ability to use them appropriately.
A person always moves towards a certain goal. The result of this action is inextricably linked with what methods are used in this activity, in addition to the nature of the acting subject and the object of the action. This shows that the cognitive process should be based on a certain methodology and method.
Method (Greek methodos - method of knowing) is considered any form of activity of the subject. 1 System of tools and methods used in a specific field of activity (science, politics, art, etc.); the general theory of the method, the teaching about the system of methods is considered methodology. 2
The famous linguist Yu.S. Stepanov stated that the method problem includes three central concepts: methodology - method - methodology. These concepts are explained as follows:
Methodology is a set of observational and experimental methods.
Method - methods of theoretical generalization of the results determined and observed through experience (experiment).
Methodology is the application of worldview principles to the cognitive process. 1
Methodology is of great importance in the theory and practice of any science as a teaching about the scientific method in general and the teaching about the methods of special sciences, that is, the teaching about the ways of cognitive activity. 2
It seems that the concepts of methodology and method are inextricably linked. The methods of special science and the general scientific method interact with each other.
There are general and private ways of knowing. Therefore, it is divided into philosophical method, that is, the method of general knowledge and general scientific methods. In the first case, methodology is understood as compliance with the principles of the method of knowledge specific to this or that philosophical system, and in the second case, methodology is understood as the teaching of research methods specific to this or that branch of science.
The methodology of science is the concrete application of the philosophical method of knowledge based on the characteristics of the object being studied within the framework of a particular science.
The philosophical method, that is, the method of knowledge, is considered to be the teaching about the general laws of nature, society and thinking.
General methodological principles are created on the basis of generalization of information provided by various disciplines.
Method and methodology are very important in scientific knowledge.
Classification of languages ​​is the division of languages ​​into groups based on certain characteristics and the views arising from the general purpose of the research. The problem of classifying languages ​​arises during their comparative study, and is sometimes thought to be the ultimate goal of comparative study. There are 2 main types of classification of languages: genealogical classification of languages ​​and morphological (typological) classification of languages. The main difference between them is that the first of the classifications is based on the concept of kinship of languages; it was realized only after the emergence of comparative historical linguistics. In this case, related languages ​​are divided into families depending on the degree of kinship (for example, Indo-European, Finno-Ugric, Turkic, Somho and other language families), and closely related languages ​​within the same family are divided into groups and subgroups (for example, the group of East Slavic languages ​​in the Slavic group of the Indo-European family or the Turkic language family eastern and western groups) are attached. There are also attempts to identify and define classification units larger than a family (a set of language families, a macrofamily, etc.).

Morphological classification of languages ​​is based on typological and grammatical features. It emerged on the basis of comparison of languages ​​with fixed lexical units and languages ​​with lexical units that are combined and subject to changes. The German scientist A.V. Schlegel developed this principle of language classification by dividing languages ​​into languages ​​with grammatical structure and languages ​​without grammatical structure. The division of languages ​​into amorphous languages, agglutinative languages, inflected languages ​​and polysynthetic languages ​​is also based on this classification. None of these types is pure: all the languages ​​of the world have characteristics that are contagious from one to the other. German scientist G. Steinthal, Austrian F. Misteli and American E. Sepir in the 19th century tried to improve the morphological (typological) classification in a rather simple, general way.

There is also a third type of language classification - areal or geographical classification. This classification is in an additional, auxiliary position compared to these two classifications, and is based on the geographical location of languages ​​or dialects within the same language (see also Linguistic geography). In general, the Classification of Languages ​​is a great help in better learning and researching many different languages ​​in the world.
Genealogical classification of languages ​​is a classification based on the identification of the origin and kinship of languages. The languages ​​derived from the original, first base language are mutually related languages ​​(for example, more than 20 modern Turkic languages ​​are variants of the early Kad. Turkic language, and modern Slavic languages ​​are variants of the early Pan-Slavic language in space and time). The genetic kinship of languages ​​is determined by identifying the system of phonetic, grammatical and lexical similarities between languages. As the first sources and foundations of T.G.T., it is possible to indicate the researches of M. Koshgari on Turkic dialects and several Arab scientists on Sami languages. The emergence of T.G.T. is connected with the emergence of comparative historical linguistics (19th century). In this classification, related languages ​​are combined into small groups, groups, families, and sometimes into larger units - macrofamilies or language formations (for example, Uralic languages) (for example, according to T.g.t., Uzbek belongs to the eastern group of the Turkic language family, and Russian belongs to the Indo-European languages belongs to the East Slavic group of the Slavic group of the family). Genealogically classifying most languages ​​and placing them in one family or another is often controversial. For example, not all scientists recognized the existence of the Caucasian family of languages ​​(see also classification of languages. Linguistic geography. Morphological classification of languages).
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