Vox com has an article on the above subject by Joseph Stromberg. I now quote his article below: On June 9, 2015 the vox com


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“Like those of many archaeans, Loki’s protein-coding genes include many (about 29%) that are similar to those in bacteria and many (about 26%) that are unique to archaeans. Nearly one-third are not similar to any known protein.5 But about 3% of the genes, though surrounded by clearly archaean genes, resemble the eukaryotic genes that produce the contractile protein actin, proteins that participate in intracellular transport, or proteins that enable membranes to engulf things.6 Scientists don’t know how these genes function in Lokiarchaeota because they’ve never observed them. Nevertheless they maintain that, equipped with such genes, some intrepid archaean ancestor like Loki could have taken the first step to becoming a eukaryote.

  • “Like those of many archaeans, Loki’s protein-coding genes include many (about 29%) that are similar to those in bacteria and many (about 26%) that are unique to archaeans. Nearly one-third are not similar to any known protein.5 But about 3% of the genes, though surrounded by clearly archaean genes, resemble the eukaryotic genes that produce the contractile protein actin, proteins that participate in intracellular transport, or proteins that enable membranes to engulf things.6 Scientists don’t know how these genes function in Lokiarchaeota because they’ve never observed them. Nevertheless they maintain that, equipped with such genes, some intrepid archaean ancestor like Loki could have taken the first step to becoming a eukaryote.



One Small Step, One Giant Leap?

  • One Small Step, One Giant Leap?

  • “Only eukaryotic cells have mitochondria, little powerhouses that generate a lot of energy. Many evolutionists cling to the notion that eukaryotes evolved mitochondria by assimilating bacteria—a process called endosymbiosis. While endosymbiosis is an observable symbiosis in which a microorganism lives inside its host, endosymbiosis cannot bridge the evolutionary gap between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, despite its popularity among evolutionists.7



“Mitochondria have their own supply of DNA, but some of the DNA required for their function is also located in cellular nuclei. The evolutionary endosymbiosis tale cannot steer around this irreducible complexity. Mitochondria depend on proteins coded for by genes already present in their cells’ nuclei. Yet such necessary nuclear genes would have no evolutionary reason to exist in an ancestral prokaryote before the mitochondria evolved, and the mitochondria could not function without them. (Read more about problems with the notion of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution in “‘Non-evolution of the Appearance of Mitochondria and Plastids in Eukaryotes: Challenges to Endosymbiotic Theory.”) Nevertheless, evolutionary scientists like Ettema believe Loki’s ancestors answered this critical gap in evolutionary dogma.

  • “Mitochondria have their own supply of DNA, but some of the DNA required for their function is also located in cellular nuclei. The evolutionary endosymbiosis tale cannot steer around this irreducible complexity. Mitochondria depend on proteins coded for by genes already present in their cells’ nuclei. Yet such necessary nuclear genes would have no evolutionary reason to exist in an ancestral prokaryote before the mitochondria evolved, and the mitochondria could not function without them. (Read more about problems with the notion of endosymbiosis in eukaryote evolution in “‘Non-evolution of the Appearance of Mitochondria and Plastids in Eukaryotes: Challenges to Endosymbiotic Theory.”) Nevertheless, evolutionary scientists like Ettema believe Loki’s ancestors answered this critical gap in evolutionary dogma.



Clinch the Case?

  • Clinch the Case?

  • “The acquisition of mitochondria really got things started,” explains Ettema. “The genes we find in Loki provide some pointers.” He says, “In Loki we also find genes that are related to those that encode actin proteins. Although we don't know what they do in Loki, we can infer that the last common ancestor had these genes.”8 Believing that discovery of genes that could presumably have equipped a prokaryote for endosymbiotic evolution into a eukaryote, Ettema declares, “Archaea and eukaryotes are sister groups, sharing a common ancestor.”9



“Ecstatic about the discovery that Lokiarchaeota might be equipped to use their membranes to engulf things, Eugene Koonin of NIH’s National Center for Biotechnology Information commented, “These findings clinch the case for the origin of eukaryotes from within the archaeal diversity and point to a specific part of the archaeal evolutionary tree where eukaryotes belong. Equally important, Lokiarchaeota combine a number of ‘eukaryotic-like’ features that previously have been found scattered among different archaeal genomes. Taken together, these findings give credence to the evolutionary scenario in which the eukaryotes evolved from an archaeon with a complex cellular organization that might have been capable of engulfing bacteria.”10

  • “Ecstatic about the discovery that Lokiarchaeota might be equipped to use their membranes to engulf things, Eugene Koonin of NIH’s National Center for Biotechnology Information commented, “These findings clinch the case for the origin of eukaryotes from within the archaeal diversity and point to a specific part of the archaeal evolutionary tree where eukaryotes belong. Equally important, Lokiarchaeota combine a number of ‘eukaryotic-like’ features that previously have been found scattered among different archaeal genomes. Taken together, these findings give credence to the evolutionary scenario in which the eukaryotes evolved from an archaeon with a complex cellular organization that might have been capable of engulfing bacteria.”10





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