10 years of grbs observations from the joint Russian-American konus-wind experiment: results and perspectives


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10 years of GRBs observations from the joint Russian-American KONUS-WIND experiment: results and perspectives

  • E.P.Mazets, R.L.Aptekar, D.D.Frederiks, S.V.Golenetskii, V.N.Il’inskii, V.D.Pal’shin, M.V.Ulanov

  • A.F.Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St.Petersburg, Russia

  • T.L.Cline, P.S.Butterworth

  • NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA


Main results of the KONUS experiments on the “Venera 11-14” missions (1979-83)

  • A number of types of GRBs with different time history and duration distribution were studied.

  • Short GRBs were indicated as a separate class.

  • Sources of soft repeating bursts were discovered.

  • The energy spectra of GRBs were investigated. A rapid spectral variability was found.

  • Localization of 160 sources of GRBs revealed their isotropic distribution on the celestial sphere.



GRBs bimodal distribution

  • GRBs duration distribution. Data of Konus experiments on Venera 11-14 (1979 – 1983)



GRBs celestial distribution

  • Konus GRBs distribution



Wind Instruments



Wind trajectory

  • Wind trajectory during extended mission

  • phase 10:

  • Low-inclination phasing orbit

  • July 2002 to November 2002

  • XY (ecliptic plane) projection



Scientific objectives of Konus-Wind experiment

  • study of GRBs including a determination of their occurence rate above a sensitivity threshold of ~ 10-7 erg cm-2, detailed measuring of the time histories of bursts with high time resolution of 2 – 64 milliseconds, detailed spectral measurements in the broad energy range of 10 keV – 10 MeV, investigations of a fast spectral variability on a time bin scale of a few milliseconds;

  • precise localization of GRBs by means of an arrival time triangulation method together with other Interplanetary Network (IPN) spacecraft using the Wind s/c as a constant and effective vertex of the IPN;

  • comprehensive study of the Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR) – very rare astrophysical objects in our Galaxy thought to be neutron stars with a huge magnetic field of 1014 - 1015 G – including a monitoring of a long-term variations of their activity and waiting for exceptional rare giant flares in SGR’s with energy release up to 1044 erg;

  • detection and study much more slower gamma-ray transients especially those which are coming from objects believed to contain a black hole.



Konus-Wind Gamma-Ray Burst Experiment on US GGS-Wind spacecraft

  • Two detectors S1 and S2:

  • NaI(Tl) 13 cm diameter, 7.5 cm height, 12.5 cm Be window.

  • Located on opposite faces of spacecraft, observing correspondingly the southern and northern celestial hemispheres

  • Burst mode:

  • Time history analyzer: resolution 2ms – 256 ms, total duration 230s

  • 12 – 50 keV 4096 ch

  • 50 – 200 keV 4096 ch

  • 200 – 770 keV 4096 ch



Instrument description (continue)

  • Pulse Height analyzer: accumulation time 64ms – 8.192 s, duration 79 – 492 s

  • PHA1 12 – 770 keV 63 ch quasilog scale

  • PHA2 0.2 – 10 MeV 63 ch quasilog scale

  • Background mode: accumulation time 1.47 – 2.94 s

  • Count rate:

  • 12 – 50 keV

  • 50 – 200 keV

  • 200 – 770 keV

  • > 10 MeV



Konus-Wind Summary

  • Joint Russian-American experiment on US GGS-WIND spacecraft

  • Launch: November 1, 1994

  • Konus-Wind instrument switched on:

  • November 11, 1994

  • Orbit: beyond the magnetosphere of the Earth

  • Observations:

  • November 11, 1994 –December 18, 2004 ( 3689 days)

  • Gamma ray bursts total 2524

  • Burst mode 1419

  • Background mode 1105

  • Solar flares 729



Konus-Wind GRBs

  • GRB 980706a – an example of short hard GRB.

  • Ep = 1.6 MeV.



Konus-Wind GRBs

  • GRB 041211 – a recent example of long multipeak hard GRB.



Duration distribution of Konus-Wind trigger GRBs



Fast spectral variability of GRB 991208

  • KONUS-WIND GRB 991208 T0= 16613.263s UT

  • Two pulses with clear spectral evolution



Fast spectral evolution of GRB 991208

  • Pulse 1



Fast spectral variability of GRB 970828



Konus-Wind-Ulysses-Konus-A localization for GRB 970228

  • GRB 970228 was localized by BeppoSAX WFC (IAUC 6572)

  • Independent IPN Ulysses/Wind triangulation (IAUC 6593)

  • X-ray and optical transient was found

  • z = 0.695 ± 0.002



Localization of GRB 010109



Konus-Wind observations of Soft Gamma Repeaters

  • Konus-Wind detected more than 150 trigger SGR bursts from 4 SGRs: 1900+14, 1806-20, 1627-41, 1801-23.

  • Numerous SGR bursts were detected in the background mode

  • Giant outbursts were detected from SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1627-41

  • Series of bursts were detected from SGR 1900+14 and recently from SGR 1806-20 (GCN 2769)

  • Now Konus-Wind continue to register bursts from SGR 1806-20, which stay in active state



SGR 0526-66

  • Burst 790306 detected from SGR 0526-66 by Konus on Venera 11



Konus-Wind observations of SGR 1900+14

  • Burst 790324 - the first burst detected from SGR 1900+14 by Konus on Venera-11

  • Burst 980902b – a typical burst from SGR 1900+14 detected by Konus-Wind



SGR 1806-20

  • Burst 040828 – the most intense burst (both in peak flux and fluence) detected by Konus-Wind from this SGR.



SGR 1627-41

  • An intense burst 980625 from SGR 1627-41 which demonstrates strong spectral evolution typical for this SGR.



Giant outburst on 1998 August 27 (SGR 1900+14)

  • Time and energy characteristics of the August 27 event.

  • Top: Background subtracted light curve of the outburst. Horizontal sections with triangles specify count rates averaged over the period. The sloped dashed line is a plot of exp(-t/) for  = 91.5 s.

  • Bottom: Horizontal sections with squares specify kT averaged over the period.



Giant outburst on 1979 March 5 (SGR 0526-66)

  • Time and energy characteristics of the March 5 event.

  • Top: Background subtracted light curve of the outburst. Horizontal sections with triangles specify count rates averaged over the period. The sloped dashed line is a plot of exp(-t/) relation for =100 s.

  • Bottom: Horizontal sections with squares specify kT averaged over the period.



Giant outburst on 1998 June 18 (SGR 1627-41)

  • Time and energy characteristics of the June 18 event.

  • Top: Background subtracted light curve of the outburst. period. The rise time os about 100 ms.

  • Bottom: Spectral evolution during the burst.



New SGR 1801-23

  • New SGR was discovered by Wind, Kosmos2326, CGRO, and Ulysses

  • Only 2 short bursts from this source were detected up to date

  • Burst 970629b T0=23493.221 s UT



Giant outbursts from Gygnus X-1

  • the Cyg X-1 outburst on 950325 as observed by Konus-Wind

  • The narrow spike at 25,841 s in the beginning of interval B is the GRB that triggered a series of multichannel spectral measurements, covering the entire interval B. The gap after B was caused by the transmission of high-resolution data to the onboard tape recorder.

  • Background levels are indicated by the dashed lines.



Giant outbursts from Gygnus X-1 (continue)

  • Konus F spectrum of the outburst on 950325. The spectrum was accumulated during the decay stage of the flare over 360 s of interval B with moderate statistics. The solid curve is the result of the spectral fit. The spectral shape is consistent with that of the hard state of Cyg X-1.



Giant outbursts from Gygnus X-1 (continue)

  • Konus 15–300 keV photon fluxes (background subtracted) and hardness ratios for the outburst on 020224. The time resolution is 23.552 s.



Konus-Wind observations of GRBs with known redshifts

  • Konus-Wind has been successfully operating since November 1994. Of more than 30 GRBs with known redshifts, Konus-Wind has detected 23 GRBs in the trigger mode and 7 in the background mode. It is the largest subset of GRBs with known redshifts collected by one instrument.



Konus-Wind observations of GRBs with known redshifts: GRB 030329 (z=0.1685)

  • Konus-Wind light curve of the famous GRB 030329.

  • Fluence:

  • (1.74±0.01)×10-4 erg cm-2.

  • Peak Flux:

  • (2.62±0.04)×10-5 erg cm-2 s-1

  • 26 high resolution spectra were obtained with Ep varies from 30 to 180 keV.



Konus-Wind observations of GRBs with known redshifts

  • Correlation of isotropic equivalent maximal Luminosity with Ep (in the source rest frame) for Konus-Wind GRBs with known redshifts.



Main scientific results of the Konus-Wind experiment

  • in the course of Konus-Wind experiment more than 1400 GRBs were detected in a triggered mode with high time and spectral resolution;

  • Time histories, energy spectra, a fast spectral variability, and inherent correlations in the bursts have been studied;

  • the IPN with Konus-Wind as a basic vertex has precisely localized a large number of GRB sources by triangulation method, producing crucial data for the multiwavelength study of the GRB afterglows with many telescopes, both ground-based and in orbit;



Main scientific results of the Konus-Wind experiment (continue)

  • A comprehensive study of SGRs was carried out. Two new sources, SGR1627-41 and SGR1801-23 were discovered in addition to three known SGRs. The Konus-Wind experiment was succeeded in detailed studying of the huge outburst in SGR1900+14 on August 27, 1998. It was the second observed giant flare in SGRs after the famous March 5, 1979 event in SGR0526-66. Third giant flare was observed from the new SGR1627-41.

  • About more than 300 more common repeating bursts were observed in SGRs at revealed phases of their burst activity;

  • Rare strong and long outbursts from Cygnus X-1 were discovered. Such type of its behavior represents a new feature of gamma-ray emission of binary system contained a black hole.



The Konus-Wind experiment data collection, archiving and dissemination.

  • Obtained information are stored on CD ROM’s at GSFC and at Ioffe Institute. To make it available for scientific community several websites were opened.

  • Time histories of GRB’s given with the time resolution of 64 ms are available though GCN website at GSFC (http://gcn.gsfc.nasa.gov ) immediately after receiving telemetry data on the ground.

  • Two complete sets of an accumulated information, “Konus Catalog of Soft Gamma Repeater Activity: 1978 to 2000” and “Konus Catalog of Short GRBs” are presented on the Ioffe Institute websites at http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/LEA/SGR/Catalog/ ,and http://www.ioffe.rssi.ru/LEA/shortGRBs/Catalog/ , respectively.

  • The complete catalog of all observed GRBs is now in preparation



Perspectives of the Konus-Wind experiment

  • The Konus-Wind experiment remains an important source of time resolved GRB’s spectral data in the wide energy range from 15 keV up to 12 MeV. This information is a real contribution in the GRB’s multiwavelength study as a whole and especially for GRBs detected by SWIFT, since the spectral coverage of the SWIFT BAT instrument is extremely limited (about 20 – 150 keV). Recent developments in our understanding of GRBs suggest that broad-band spectral information about prompt GRB emission can provide important constrains on models.



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