Annual islamic bioethics workshop: dissecting the ethics of


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6/17/2015

1

WELCOME TO 



THE 2

ND

ANNUAL ISLAMIC 



BIOETHICS WORKSHOP:

DISSECTING THE ETHICS OF 

ORGAN DONATION

HOUSEKEEPING ITEMS

Registration Desk:



Name Badges 

Course Packets



Readings, Information Material, Evaluation Forms

Tumbler


Course Evaluations [2]

Please fill out and return to desk



CME Certificates (APPNA Members online; Non-APPNA @ desk) 

Food


Refreshments outside

Boxed Lunches Provided



Friday Prayers- We will walk over at 12:45 promptly



6/17/2015

2

EXPRESSIONS OF GRATITUDE



Program on Medicine & Religion

Dr. Dan Sulmasy & Daniel Kim



MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics

Dr. Mark Siegler



American Islamic College

Dr. Ali Yurtsever



II&M Staff & Volunteers

Elham Mireshghi



Tasmiha Khan

Hadiyah Muhammad



Amanda Giles

Milkie Vu



Alia Azmat

Hina Muneeruddin



Sofia Sami

Azam Zariff



Munzareen Padela

All the lecturers & my teachers/mentors

Healthcare 

System

Seminary

Muslim

Community

Academy

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American Muslim Health

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6/17/2015

3

THE INITIATIVE ON ISLAM & 



MEDICINE

Methodology:

Bring together religious scholars, Islamic 



studies experts, medical and social scientists to 

fill in the knowledge gaps around Islamic 

bioethics

‐Host intensive workshops, symposia and 

conferences that disseminate this new 

knowledge

OVERARCHING GOALS FOR WORKSHOP

Gained conceptual literacy in “Islamic” 



Bioethics

Equipped with greater understanding 



regarding the ethico-legal debates 

surrounding organ donation from Islamic 

perspectives  

Increased interest in studying the 



intersections of Islam, healthcare, and 

bioethics



6/17/2015

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PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH



Balance 


Knowledge: Theoretical and Practical

Presentation: Didactic and Narrative/Case-based



Disciplinary Focus: Theology, Law and Sociology

COURSE OVERVIEW

Day 1: Survey of the field

Actors & Material- Practical Lens



Typology for end-users of Islamic bioethics literature

Constructing an “Islamic” Bioethics?- Theological 



Lens

Discuss moral theology  informed review



Epistemology of the “normative” in Islamic ethics



Fiqh to Tasawwuf – Legal Lens

Empirical and theoretical methods of bioethics



Health Risk Assessment…- Multidisciplinary

Theoretical dialogue between clinicians and Islamic scholars



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COURSE OVERVIEW



Day 2: Deep Dive into Organ Donation Ethics

Ethical Issues in Living Organ Donor Transplant-



Practical Lens

Process & Procedures – Practical Lens



Islamic Legal Views on Organ Donation…-Legal Lens

Literature review of juridical opinions



Muslim Medical Ethics and Diversity of Ulama- Applied 

Lens



Examine interventions aimed at promoting organ donation amongst 



Muslims

Shia Opinions…- Theological and Legal Lens



Contexts of Organ Donation…- Sociology & 

Anthropology

COURSE OVERVIEW

Day 3: Applied Islamic Bioethics

Role of Muslim Physicians…- Practical 



Lens

Case Discussion



Conceptual Review



6/17/2015

6

MOSQUE-BASED SURVEY OF AMERICAN 



MUSLIMS [MI;N=97]

37%                      16%                            26%                               18%

NATIONAL SURVEY OF AMERICAN 

MUSLIM PHYSICIANS [IMANA;N=255]

15%        85%

67%           33%

8%          92%

35%        65%

3%          97%


6/17/2015

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VISION OF THE II&M



To become the leading center for study, dialogue, and 

education at the intersection of the Islamic tradition and 

biomedicine

THE 


ACTORS & MATERIALS OF 

“ISLAMIC” BIOETHICS



6/17/2015

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BACKGROUND



Islamic Bioethics

Newly ‘birthed’ field of academic inquiry with interest 



from many corners

Lack of clarity about the “Islamic”



What content qualifies as Islamic  implications for 

methods of derivation and research

Questions about scope and nature of “bioethics”



Emerge from the multi- and interdisciplinarity of 

bioethics

ISLAMIC BIOETHICS LITERATURE



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Who needs (searches for) is 



Islamic Bioethical Guidance?

Who are the consumers of 

Islamic Bioethics?

MANY CONSUMERS

Muslim patients



Concordance between medical care and Islamic regulations

Muslim healthcare providers



Islam does influence medical practice - an “Islamic” ethos

Religious leaders



To advice clinicians and patients regarding biomedicine

Healthcare institutions



Culturally-sensitive care that improves quality

Policy and Community Stakeholders



Advocate for a more culturally accommodating healthcare system



6/17/2015

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Who are the producers of 



Islamic Bioethics?

6/17/2015

11


6/17/2015

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ANYBODY ELSE?



6/17/2015

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Who is an Islamic Bioethics 



Expert?

6/17/2015

14

REPORTING ON ISLAMIC BIOETHICS IN THE MEDICAL 



LITERATURE: WHERE ARE THE EXPERTS? 

SHANAWANI &  KHALIL

Reviewed Pubmed from 1950-2005



“Islam or Muslim” & “Bioethics”  146 papers

Content:


Only 11 mention more than 1 ‘universal’ Islamic 

position

5 mention concepts/sources of Islamic law



Implication

Writings lack depth and do not meet scholarly and practical needs



6/17/2015

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64% never or rarely consult Islamic jurists



55% never or rarely read Islamic bioethics 

books

79% never or rarely look to Islamic 

medical fiqh academy verdicts

77% never or rarely seek guidance from 

Imams

National Survey of American Muslim 

physicians [n=255; IMANA]

6/17/2015

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Social



Science

Medical 


Sciences

Philosophy &

Bioethics

Health


Policy

Ethics


(Adab)

Moral 


Theology

(usul al fiqh)

Islamic

Law


(fiqh, hukm)

Clinical


Practice

An

Islamic

Bioethics

Discursive

Partners

Inputs

6/17/2015

17

CONSTRUCTING AN ‘”ISLAMIC 



BIOETHICS: 

CRITICAL CONCEPTS FROM 

THEOLOGY & LAW

What is Islam? 



A tradition of practices 

with meaning 

observed by a 

community

A meaning-making 



system (cultural 

system)


Teachings with sources

What makes 



something “Islamic”?

Tied to sources (Q&S)



Bounded within a shared 

understandings of a 

scholarly class (a 

discursive tradition)

TERMINOLOGY



6/17/2015

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TERMINOLOGY



What is (Bio)ethics?

- the “right/good/most appropriate” way to do something 



what is the objective criterion?

ISLAMIC MORAL THEOLOGY: CORE 

CONCEPTS

Revelation (wahy





Matloo  Qur’an



Ghayr matloo  Sunnah

An “Islamic” “Bioethics”



Revelatory guidance for human behavior relating to biomedicine 

that accords with the “good”/”right” 


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WHAT IS GOOD/RIGHT?



What is the end-goal of action?

What is right/good?



What are the sources for assessment?

Labelling authority vs. Characteristic of action



Theological  voluntarism or Deistic Subjectivism 

‘Ashari vs. Mu’tazali; Maturidi theology regarding intellect



Are 


God’s commands are purposeful? 

What is the purpose? (human benefit?)



Is there a “rule” of God? [two camps]



6/17/2015

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“Fatwa”

Qur’an, Sunnah, 

Maqasid (objectives)

Qawa’id (maxims)

What are Islamic ethico-legal perspectives on….?

Forbidden

Discouraged

Permissible

Supererogatory

Obligatory


6/17/2015

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ISLAMIC ETHICO-LEGAL DELIBERATION



Usul

(sources)

• Textual- Quran & Prophetic example

• Formal- Qiyas (analogy) & Ijma (consensus)

• Secondary Sources- Istishab, Urf

Maqasid


(objectives)

• Protection of life, religion, intellect, property, 

honor

• Maslaha (public interest) [also an usul]



Qawaid

(maxims)


• Hardship calls for license

• Dire necessity renders prohibited things 

permissible 

ETHICS IN ISLAM

What can I do  What should I do?



Islam (legal minimum)  Ihsan (perfected optimum)

Role of fuqaha (jurists)= move community from sinful to realm 



of permissible actions

6/17/2015

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TERMINOLOGY



Islamic Bioethics: 

Tied scriptural sources & bearers of tradition with 2 



genres



Fiqhi Literature = permissibility of therapies along an 

ethico-legal gradient



Adabi Literature = inculcating of virtue-based practices 

Muslim Bioethics:



Sociological study of how Muslims respond to 

ethical challenges with ‘Islam’ as one input

TERMINOLOGY

Applied Islamic Bioethics Research:



Bridges Islamic & Muslim bioethics 

methodologically

Examining the ways in which material of Islamic 



bioethics is understood and applied by consumers

Examining the translation of biomedical concepts 



into edifice of Islamic law

6/17/2015

23

THE 



INITIATIVE 

ON 


ISLAM AND 

MEDICINE 

WORKSHOP WRAP-UP



6/17/2015

24

Social



Science

Medical 


Sciences

Philosophy &

Bioethics

Health


Policy

Ethics


(Adab)

Moral 


Theology

(usul al fiqh)

Islamic

Law


(fiqh, hukm)

Clinical


Practice

An

Islamic

Bioethics

Discursive

Partners

Inputs

FATAWA SHORTCOMINGS

Jurists Tendencies

Legists use machinary of fiqh to ‘remove’ sin



Deference to ahl al-khibrah for details and concepts

Conceptualization of the Problem-space

May occur prior to fatwa and be not written into



Or systematized after collation of juridical opinions 

performed



Hukm al-shay far tasawurrih

Or faulty



Islamic ethico-legal constructs

May require further theorization and conceptualization



6/17/2015

25

LIMITATIONS OF “FATWA-HUNTING”



Method  “Publication” Bias

Tool for Policy  Context-driven (contingent vs 



normative)

Ethico-legal Source  subject to the inherent 



limitations of the constructs

Recognizing these shortcomings is necessary for



Avoiding misapplication & misreading

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Level 1:



Encyclopedia of Islamic Bioethics 

Fiqh Academies



Dar al Ifta Al Misrriyah

Islamic Fiqh Academy of the Muslim World League (Jeddah)



Islamic Fiqh Academy (India)



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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY



Level 2:


Review Books by Islamic legal experts

Topical reviews in Islamic Medical and Scientific Ethics 



Research Library at Georgetown University

Level 3:



Individual fatwas or opinion pieces 

Qibla for the Islamic Sciences (formerly Sunnipath)



IslamQA, 

Islam

Biomedicine



High-Quality 

Research


High-Quality 

Education



6/17/2015

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Developing a Religiously-Tailored 



Intervention to Improve 

Mammography Rates in Mosque 

Communities

Associations between Religiosity 

& Workplace Discrimination & 

Bioethical Attitudes in American 

Muslim Physician Workforce

ISLAMIC THEOLOGY & THE HUMAN 

SCIENCES

Traditional ulema

Clinicians

Academicians



6/17/2015

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UNFUNDED TRAINEES [2011-DATE]



Undergraduate Interns:

Five  2 national conference presentations



Post-Graduate (Bachelor or Master’s):

Five (+3)  6 presentations (+1); 1 paper



Medical Students 

Three  3 presentations, 2 papers



Doctoral


Two  4 presentation, 1 paper

Post-doctoral



Two  1 presentation, 2 papers under-review

Evaluation Forms



Publicize this work

Social Media, word-of-mouth



Support our work

Connect to donors and collaborators (a lot of volunteerism in 



II&M)

Host 5-hr workshops in community setting [EOL in Dallas, LA]



Stay Tuned

Apr/May 2016  Interaction and Intersection: 



Discourse and Dialogue at between Islamic Theology 

& Biomedicine 



3 day Conference with abstract call



CLOSING REQUESTS

6/17/2015

29

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