Educ 677 / Caplan Module 3 Video 2: Clause Combination (Handout)


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EDUC 677 / Caplan

Module 3 Video 2: Clause Combination (Handout)

  1. Types of clauses

  • Independent

  • Dependent

    • Adverb clauses

    • Adjective (relative) clauses

    • Noun clauses

    • Non-finite clauses

  1. Equal clauses make compound clauses

  2. Unequal clauses make complex sentences

  3. Functions of clause connectors

    1. Elaborate

      1. Most libraries give you a card, which allows you to borrow books and movies.

      2. Lake Michigan is a fresh-water lake; in fact it provides the water supply for the city of Chicago.

    2. Extend

      1. Lions are social animals, and they live in prides.

      2. Classical musicians learn to follow the music, whereas jazz musicians are trained to improvise.

    3. Enhance

      1. Condition: If it rains, I’ll take the bus.

      2. Concession: You have the right to speak, although you shouldn’t use it.

      3. Reason: I already ate, so I’m not hungry.



  1. Review of connectors



Coordinating Conjunctions

(form equal clauses)

Subordinating Conjunctions

(form unequal clauses)

Conjunctive Adverbs

(modify other clauses)

For

And


Nor

But (FANBOYS)

Or

Yet


So

Because

If

When



While

Although


Before

After


(etc.)

Relative Pronouns

Noun Clause Subordinators

However

Therefore

For example

In fact


On the other hand

Furthermore

Thus

As a result



In contrast

(etc.)




  1. Note: Conjunctive adverbs are added to simple and compound sentences

    1. It snowed all night. Therefore, schools were closed.

    2. It snowed all night, and therefore schools were closed.

    3. It snowed all night; therefore, schools were closed.



  1. Punctuation:

What are the rules in formal, written English for punctuating compound and complex sentences?

(IC = independent clause; DC = dependent clause)



For example: IC. IC.

IC; IC.
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