Extraction, chemical composition, description of the range

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Extraction, chemical composition,

description of the range.

Flour production technology.

Flour - powdered cereals, buckwheat and legumes

the product obtained by grinding until it reaches the state

is calculated. The current production of kuda flour is based on the latest achievements of science and technology.

Flour is divided into types, types and varieties. The type of flour it is

determined by frost. On this basis, wheat,

rye, corn, barley, soybeans, buckwheat, oats, rice flours

produced. Each type of flour has certain characteristics depending on which grain it is made from. Also

flours are also made from a mixture of wheat and rye grains.

Types of flour are divided into types depending on technological parameters and in what field they are used. For example, wheat flour

produced in three types: nonbop, pasta

flours used in confectionery for production.

The structure, physicochemical and technological properties of different types of flour particles of the same type

differs to some extent from one another. Each type of flour has its own

in turn divided into varieties.

Flour weighing. In the process of grain processing, its quality and properties are formed. Its quality is unique

not to the properties of the grain, but to the technological processes

will also depend. The general technology of flour production is given in the data in Figure 4 below.

Forming a batch of crushed grain. Te-

the quality and technological properties of the grain batches brought to the germaniums differ from each other. It is known

To get a quality flour you need different grain batches

is mixed in proportion, i.e. a mixture is prepared for grinding

Here are the indicators of grain type, variety, area of ​​cultivation, vitreous, quality and quantity of gluten

taken into account. The formation of a batch of wheat flour depends on the purpose for which it is used

is carried out. For example, high-gluten wheat is mixed with low-gluten wheat, or glassy unsaturated wheat. The next process is called grain grinding.

Preparing the dough for grinding. The main processes in the preparation of grain for flour grinding grain from foreign mixtures

cleaning, cleaning the grain surface from contaminants, in part

peeling and hydrothermal treatment of grain.

Differences in frost resolution and aerodynamic properties

sieve the grain and wind

get rid of by applying irrigation methods using

are given. Compounds that differ in frost forms

and the grain is separated by passing it through cylindrical triers.

Fine stones and sands are processed on special machines

and metal compounds are separated by the passage of grain through magnetic devices. On the surface of the grains

contaminants are based on the transfer of grain through special machines and washing with water in washing machines


From the processes shown in the preparation of grain for flour grinding

in addition, they undergo a process of hydrothermal treatment or conditioning of grain. This process is grain

technological properties of grain to improve traction

consists of changing. Condition Don immediately

is carried out as soon as the grain is washed. When it comes to conditioning

it is understood to evaporate the grain and hold it for a certain period of time. The retention time of evaporated grain depends on the vitreous size of the grain endosperm and the room temperature.

Air conditioning at room temperature (cold method) 3

lasts from 16 hours. Conditioning

in the hot method (40-55 ° C) the grain holding time is 2-3

times. Water in the frost during the conditioning process

and complex structural-mechanical and biochemical changes occur under the influence of enzymes. This is a high-grade flour in the grain

increases the amount of output and leads to an improvement in its non-binding properties. Between molecules

distance expansion and the appearance of microcracks

reduces the density of the grain and its resistance to external forces, as a result of which such grains are crushed quickly and well, resulting in flours with high dispersion properties. Second,

to the inside of the vitamins using water from the surface of the grain

due to its passage, its nutritional value increases even more. Biochemical processes allow some of the flour to turn white,

increases the qualitative and quantitative indicators of gluten.

Between molecules

distance expansion and the appearance of microcracks

reduces the density of the grain and its resistance to external forces, as a result of which such grains are crushed quickly and well, resulting in flours with high dispersion properties. Second,

to the inside of the vitamins using water from the surface of the grain

due to its passage, its nutritional value increases even more. Biochemical processes allow some of the flour to turn white,

increases the qualitative and quantitative indicators of gluten. As a result, breads made from such flours have high levels of organoleptic and physicochemical properties

will be.

Grinding (weighing) grain. Donning anatomical

because the chemical composition of the parts is different

their abrasion resistance will also vary.

The mechanical strength of the cortex is 12-20 times greater than the strength of the endosperm. That's why

the grinding process is repeated several times to form the desired size of flour powder.

The basic principles of operation of grain grinding and grain grinding machines are based on grain compaction. Donnie

the main worker of mainly rolled lathes for grinding

The body rotates at different speeds, opposite each other

are two cast iron valts. The surface of the waltz is rough.

it will be or smooth. The grain falls between these two rollers and is broken into pieces of different sizes.

The distance between the rollers depends on the size of the grain

can be changed depending on.

Crushed product after each rolled machine

in rassevs. Rassev means 3-4 sieves per body

the attached device is understood. This is the eye of the sieve

crumbling from top to bottom. The last flour

used for separation.

Waltzing machine and its maintenance system

referred to as A rough system with a rough surface is used to grind the grain.

As a result of rough grinding

croup is formed. It consists entirely of endosperm

the grains are converted to it in crushing systems.

So there are two types of grain grinding (weighing)

There is a method: simple and repeated weighing. In the normal weighing method, the grain is passed through the grinding system once. Bunda

all anatomical parts of it are involved in grain extraction.

Coarse wheat and coarse rye flour in normal (coarse) grind

is obtained. Flour when grinding wheat grains in the usual way

The yield is 96%, and 95% of rye grains.

clay Flour is the flour that comes out

the amount expressed as a percentage of the ratio of processed grain mass.

In complex (repeated) weighing, the endosperm is separated, separating the husk, husk and aleyron layers of the grain.

try to crush the part. The difference between the complex flour method and simple methods is that the grain

the conversion to it is carried out in two stages. Don first

In 2-3 systems it is divided into several parts. And then

these fragmented masses are specially sifted and sorted according to quality. When sorting, they are ok, streaked in color

and are separated in the form of dark particles.

Arrow grains consist of only the endosperm part of the grain, while spotted and dark grains

and the bran-forming shell, the aleyron shell, the aphid

the contribution of the parts will be much greater.

These pieces, sorted by color, are individually max-

sus are rolled on roller machines and these systems

referred to as crushing systems. Freeze in these systems

12-20 streams of flour of different quality are formed depending on how the pieces are sorted. Different types of flour can be obtained by mixing flours from certain systems.

The highest, first and foremost of nonbop flours in the grinding of three varieties

The second varieties will be available. Here, its total output is 78%. 10-25% of this

higher, 40-45% are 1st grade, 13-23% are 2nd grade.

As a result of grinding glass-soft wheat, instead of the high variety, krupchatka variety is obtained.

First and second grade flours are obtained by grinding two varieties.

Here, its total output is 78%,

of which the first grade is 55-60% and the second grade is 18-23%

reaches Their chemical composition

As mentioned above, the chemical composition of grain varies depending on the type of grain, growing conditions, and hammer factors. Therefore, the flours obtained from these grains are also different from each other in chemical composition

vary greatly. Even each made from the same frost

The different flour varieties also differ significantly in chemical composition.

Table 6 below provides information on the chemical composition of the main flour types.

From the data in Table 6 it can be seen that its

The main part is starch. Only in the shadow flour

the amount of starch is relatively low and is 10-15%

reaches It is important to determine their nutritional value

one of the indicators is proteins. Proteins flour

content of 9-12% (excluding soy flour), but low

in varietal flours slightly more than in high-grade flours

will be more. Soy distinguishes it by its richness in complete valuable protein. The amount of protein in it, depending on the type, is 37%.

from 50%.

Egs are low in its content and not more than 2%.

although low, the flour ferments quickly and becomes crumbly during storage. In high-grade flours, in low-fat varieties

will be less than.

The amount of mono and disaccharides in them is also more than 1%

not. However, the content of mono and disaccharides in soy flour is 5-6%.

Flour enzymes are composed of amylase, lipases and other enzymes that are involved in kneading and raising dough

their importance is enormous.

The amount of ash in them is their navigation

will change rapidly depending on. In general, the amount of ash in wheat and rye flour can be one of the main indicators of their variety

ekan. For example, if the ash content of the highest grade of wheat flour is 0.5%, the first grade - 0.7,

in the second variety - 1, 1, and in it - 1.5%.

A similar connection can be observed in rye flour. Similarly, the amount of fiber is also a decrease in the type of flour

with which its amount increases (Table 6).

They contain minerals and vitamins

also differ from each other in Table 7 below

It is given on the basis of the "Reference to the chemical composition of food". Analyzing the data in Table 7, it can be understood that the amount of vitamins and minerals

they increase with decreasing variety.

Thus, the increase in flour output when grinding flour

with increasing contribution of biologically active substances in it,

the amount of starch and the ability to provide energy decreases

ekan. But food made from their lower varieties

food is more difficult to digest in the human body

and gives a relatively dark color.
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