Independent work theme : Computer software Contents: Computer software Architecture Execution


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INDEPENDENT WORK

Theme : Computer software

Contents:

1.Computer software

2.Architecture

3.Execution

4.Illustrations

1.COMPUTER SOFTWARE

The computer will not work without software. Software also call programs are the instructions that tell the computer what to do and how o do it. The two main categories of software are system software and application software. The system software also called the operating system (OS) actually runs the computer. This software controls all the operations of the computer and its devices. All computers use system software and without the system software the application software will not work. The most common OS on a PC is the Windows operating system and for the Mac computer it would be the Mac operating system.

Application software is a program that allows users to a specific task on the computer. There are a number of different types of application software available to do many of the tasks we do daily. Four examples of common application software and what they are used for are:

Word Processing Application: One word processing program is Microsoft Word. This program allows you to type letters, assignments and do any other written activity on the computer.

Spreadsheet Application: Microsoft Excel is an example of a spreadsheet program. One can use this program to create charts and do calculations.

E-mail Application: Outlook Express is an e-mail program that allows you to receive and send e-mails.

Internet Application: Internet Explorer is a program that allows you to get connected to the Internet and look at Web sites like the one you are reading now.

It is important to note that when you buy a computer the computer comes with the operating system and some software already installed. You may have to buy more software and install them on the computer. Install means to load the software onto the hard disk of the computer so that you can run or use the software.



2.Architecture
Users often see things differently from programmers. People who use modern general purpose computers (as opposed to embedded systemsanalog computers and supercomputers) usually see three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software.

  • Platform software
    The Platform includes the firmwaredevice drivers, an operating system, and typically a graphical user interface which, in total, allow a user to interact with the computer and its peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes bundled with the computer. On a PC one will usually have the ability to change the platform software.

  • Application software
    Application software or Applications are what most people think of when they think of software. Typical examples include office suites and video games. Application software is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes applications are bundled with the computer, but that does not change the fact that they run as independent applications. Applications are usually independent programs from the operating system, though they are often tailored for specific platforms. Most users think of compilers, databases, and other "system software" as applications.

  • User-written software
    End-user development tailors systems to meet users' specific needs. User software include spreadsheet templates and word processor templates. Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and often overlook how important it is. Depending on how competently the user-written software has been integrated into default application packages, many users may not be aware of the distinction between the original packages, and what has been added by co-workers.



3.Execution

Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as the hard drive or memory). Once the software has loaded, the computer is able to execute the software. This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code. Each instruction causes the computer to carry out an operation—moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the control flow of instructions.



Data movement is typically from one place in memory to another. Sometimes it involves moving data between memory and registers which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly. So, this is sometimes avoided by using "pointers" to data instead. Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the value of a variable data element. More complex computations may involve many operations and data elements together.

4.Illustrations







References:

  1.  "System Software". The University of Mississippi. Archived from the original on 30 May 2001.

  2. ^ "Embedded Software—Technologies and Trends". IEEE Computer Society. May–June 2009. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.

  3. ^ "scripting intelligence book examples". 9 May 2018. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015.

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