Lesson 31: Special text


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LESSON 31:

Special text: The relation of the earth to other heavenly bodies

Heavenly bodies in astronomy are natural bodies visible in the sky. These are also known as celestial bodies. These bodies do not include man-made objects, such as satellites. Examples of heavenly or celestial bodies include planets, stars, dwarf planets and quasars.

The term astronomical object is also used to define naturally occurring physical entities that are observable in the universe. These objects are typically single cohesive structures such as asteroids, moons, planets and stars. Astronomical, heavenly or celestial bodies differ from astronomical objects. Astronomical objects are associated with a position in space, but these objects may not be a single cohesive structure, such as a star. They are often a grouping of many objects, such as a star cluster, nebula or galaxy. A comet can be defined as both an object and a body. It can be described as a body when referring to its nucleus alone or as an object when referring to its nucleus and tail.



Reading: Impact of E-Mail
E-Mail, in computer science, abbreviation of the term electronic mail, method of transmitting data, text files, digital photos, or audio and video files from one computer to another over an intranet or the Internet. E-mail enables computer users to send messages and data quickly through a local area network or beyond through the Internet. E-mail came into widespread use in the 1990s and has become a major development in business and personal communications.

E-mail has had a great impact on the amount of information sent worldwide. It has become an important method of transmitting information previously relayed via regular mail, telephone, courier, fax, television, or radio.

E-mail, however, has also been abused by certain businesses that send unsolicited commercial e-mail messages known as spam. To address this problem, the U.S. Congress in 2003 passed legislation designed to curb spam. The law makes it illegal to send e-mail messages that use deceptive subject lines and false return addresses, providing fines as high as $6 million and possible prison terms for violators. Senders of pornographic or adult-related content must clearly identify such content in the subject line. The law requires all commercial e-mail messages, solicited or unsolicited, to include a valid postal address and an opt-out mechanism within the body of the text so that recipients can prevent future e-mail solicitations.

The federal law supplants all previous state laws and requires some change in behavior on the part of e-mail users. Previously, e-mail users were advised not to respond to spam because such a response would merely verify the validity of the e-mail address. For the new law to work, however, e-mail recipients must notify the sender that their solicitations are no longer wanted. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is compiling a database of spam violators. People who receive deceptive e-mail messages or who continue to receive unsolicited messages after notification should forward the solicitations to uce@ftc.gov to lodge a complaint with the FTC.

Tarjima.

Astronomiyada samoviy jismlar osmonda ko'rinadigan tabiiy jismlardir. Bular osmon jismlari deb ham nomlanadi. Ushbu jismlar sun'iy yo'ldoshlar kabi texnogen ob'ektlarni o'z ichiga olmaydi. Samoviy yoki samoviy jismlarga misollar sayyoralar, yulduzlar, mitti sayyoralar va kvazarlarni o'z ichiga oladi.

Astronomik ob'ekt atamasi koinotda kuzatiladigan tabiiy ravishda uchraydigan jismoniy mavjudotlarni aniqlash uchun ham ishlatiladi. Ushbu ob'ektlar, odatda, birlashgan tuzilmalardir, masalan, asteroidlar, oylar, sayyoralar va yulduzlar. Astronomik, samoviy yoki samoviy jismlar astronomik narsalardan farq qiladi. Astronomik ob'ektlar kosmosdagi pozitsiya bilan bog'liq, ammo bu ob'ektlar yulduz kabi yagona yaxlit tuzilma bo'lmasligi mumkin. Ular ko'pincha yulduz klasteri, tumanlik yoki galaktika kabi ko'plab ob'ektlarning guruhlanishidir. Kometa ham jism, ham jism sifatida aniqlanishi mumkin. U o'z yadrosini yolg'iz gapirganda yoki uning yadrosi va dumini nazarda tutganda jism sifatida tasvirlanishi mumkin.

Elektron pochta ta’siri.

Elektron pochta, informatika sohasida elektron pochta atamasining qisqartmasi, ma'lumot, matnli fayllar, raqamli fotosuratlar yoki audio va videofayllarni bir kompyuterdan boshqasiga intranet yoki Internet orqali yuborish. Elektron pochta kompyuter foydalanuvchilariga tezkor ma'lumot va ma'lumotlarni mahalliy tarmoq orqali yoki undan tashqarida Internet orqali yuborish imkoniyatini beradi. Elektron pochta 90-yillarda keng qo'llanila boshladi va biznes va shaxsiy aloqalar sohasida katta rivojlanishga aylandi.

Elektron pochta dunyo bo'ylab yuborilgan ma'lumotlarning miqdoriga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Bu odatiy pochta, telefon, kurer, faks, televizor yoki radio orqali ilgari yuborilgan ma'lumotlarni uzatishning muhim usuliga aylandi.



Biroq, elektron pochta, spam deb nomlanuvchi tijoriy elektron pochta xabarlarini yuboradigan ayrim korxonalar tomonidan ham suiiste'mol qilindi. Ushbu muammoni hal qilish uchun 2003 yilda AQSh Kongressi spamni cheklashga qaratilgan qonun qabul qildi. Qonun aldamchi mavzular va yolg'on qaytish manzillarini ishlatadigan elektron pochta xabarlarini yuborishni noqonuniy qilib, qonunni buzganlarga 6 million dollargacha jarima va qamoq jazosini tayinlaydi. Pornografiya yoki kattalarga tegishli kontentni yuboruvchilar mavzu tarkibidagi bunday tarkibni aniq belgilashlari kerak. Qonunda barcha tijorat elektron pochta xabarlari, qabul qilingan yoki istalmagan elektron pochta xabarlari haqiqiy pochta manzilini va matn tarkibiga qabul qiluvchilar kelajakda elektron pochta orqali qilinadigan iltimoslarni oldini olishlari uchun rad etish mexanizmini kiritilishini talab qiladi.

Federal qonun barcha oldingi shtatlar qonunlarini qo'llab-quvvatlaydi va elektron pochta foydalanuvchilari tomonidan ba'zi bir xatti-harakatlarni o'zgartirishni talab qiladi. Ilgari, elektron pochta foydalanuvchilariga spamga javob bermaslik tavsiya qilingan, chunki bunday javob elektron pochta manzilining haqiqiyligini tasdiqlaydi. Biroq, yangi qonun ishlashi uchun elektron pochta xabarlarini oluvchilar jo'natuvchiga ularning iltimoslari endi kerak emasligi to'g'risida xabar berishlari kerak. Federal Savdo Komissiyasi (FTC) spam qoidabuzarlarning ma'lumotlar bazasini tuzmoqda. Aldangan elektron pochta xabarlarini olgan yoki ogohlantirilganidan keyin so'ralmagan xabarlarni olishni davom ettiradigan odamlar FCga shikoyat qilish uchun uce@ftc.gov elektron manziliga murojaat qilishlari kerak.
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