Self-study7 Task Complete the text with the best words
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3 kurs sitri mustaqil ta'lim Ingliz tili
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- Task 2. Complete the phrases 1–6 with a verb from the box.
- Task 3. Change the following phrases, as in the example.
- Task 4. Match a word from box A with a word from box B to complete the sentences below
- Task 5. Use the same word for each group to make new noun combinations.
- Task 6. A large travel agency called Free Horizons has recently been reorganised and the new manager, Olivia Anderson, is very keen on staff training. Complete her e-mail with the words from the box.
- Write a reply (40–55 words) in which you
- Task 7. Before you read
- Task 8. Look through the whole article and find
- Task 10. Look at paragraph 3 and find
- Task 12. Read paragraph 4. In which areas will the benefits of small organisations be most useful
- Task 15. What three benefits do people get from contributing to crowd intelligence websites, apart from money (paragraph 6)
- Over to you 1
Task 1. Complete the text with the best words.
It has become a common place to say that the world is changing at an ever-increasing pace. Companies today are faced with a stark choice: c 1 or go under. For example, four decades ago, companies typically tended to be _______2. They were built on a model which achieved a high degree of control, but in which ___________3of communication were few and slow.
Another disadvantage of this type of organisation is that more junior ________4 may not even know who the CEO is, or what __________5 the decision-makers are trying to achieve. In order to try to solve this problem, many organisations have adopted a less ___________6, more flexible business culture in which frequent contact between the owner and the employees ensures that ______7 is flowing smoothly.
A second difficult choice for a company concerns the extent to which it should go global or remain _______8. Global operations allow maximum ________9 of scale, while localisation makes it possible to _______10 quickly and to reach all market______ 11. In order to reduce the tension between global and local demands, many companies have adopted a ‘hub and spoke’ structure. They use several regional production and ________12 ‘hubs’ where neighbouring markets are serviced from one single location.
1 a) adopt b) market c) adapt d) research
2 a) economical b) hierarchical c) welcoming d) democratic
3 a) webs b) media c) roads d) channels
4 a) customers b) directors c) staff d) buyers
5 a) goals b) design c) plan d) sales
6 a) bureaucratic b) caring c) decentralised d) market-driven
7 a) information b) news c) speech d) interest
8 a) professional b) static c) local d) impersonal
9 a) production b) economies c) marketing d) savings
10 a) call b) demand c) enquire d) respond
11 a) shares b) research c) leaders d) sectors
12 a) manufacturing b) selection c) distribution d) advertising
Task 2. Complete the phrases 1–6 with a verb from the box.
1. draw up contracts
2. goods and equipment
3. install and systems
4. press releases
1 a hotel with four stars a four-star hotel
2 a deal worth eighty thousand euros ……………….
3 a journey that lasts seven hours …………………
4 a loan of two million pounds ………………….
5 a seminar that lasts three days …………………
6 an office block that has sixty storeys ………………….
Task 4. Match a word from box A with a word from box B to complete the sentences below.
1. This new computer virus could wipe all the data off your hard disk.
2. Several organisations are strongly opposed to the use of children in advertising in general, and in ______________ in particular.
3. Going to an international _____________ is often an excellent opportunity for networking.
4. Advances in ______________ have revolutionised the way people communicate and do business.
5. GVC Steelworks already have a ______________ of 1,500, and they are still recruiting.
6. The government should commission a special ____________ to assess the risks posed by GM foods.
7. It would be bad ______________ to revalue our currency at this particular time.
Task 5. Use the same word for each group to make new noun combinations.
1. world trade trade deficit trade secret
2. crisis m …… m……. guru project m ………..
3. o ……... hours head o……… o …………… job
4. life i ……….. travel i……… policy i………. broker
5. p ………. range consumer p……. p ………….. launch
6. a……… agency radio a………. a…………. campaign
Task 6. A large travel agency called Free Horizons has recently been reorganised and the new manager, Olivia Anderson, is very keen on staff training. Complete her e-mail with the words from the box.
Write a reply (40–55 words) in which you:
• state your preferred topic
• give reasons for your choice.
Task 7. Before you read Will large companies still exist 100 years from now? Why? I Why not?
Reading. Read this article from the Financial Times and answer the questions.
Looking to Wikipedia for answers
To understand how large-scale work was organised during the past 100 years. the best models were traditional hierarchical organisations such as General Motors. IBM and Wai-Mm1. But to understand how largescale work will be organized in the future, we need to look at newer examples such as Wikipedia, eBay and Google.
In Wikipedia. for instance, thousands of people from across the globe have collectively created a large and surprisingly high-quality intellectual product the world's largest encyclopaedia - and have done so with almost no centralised control. Anyone zo who wants to can change almost anything. and decisions about what changes are kept are made by a loose consensus of those who care.Wikipedia is a remarkable organizational invention that illustrates how new forms of communication. such as the internet, are making it possible to organise work in new and innovative ways.
Of course. new ways of organising work are not desirable everywhere. ln many cases, traditional h ierarchies are still needed to capture economies of scale or to control risks. But in an increasing number of cases. We can have the economic benefits of large organisations without .so giving up the human benefits of small ones - freedom, flexibility. motivation and creativity.
These human benefits can provide decisive competitive advantages in knowledge-based and innovation-driven work. During the coming decades, we can expect to see such ideas in operation in more and more so parts of the economy. These new practices have various names, but the phrase I find most useful is ·collective intelligence.
What if we could have any number of people and computers connected to, for instance, care for patients in a hospital? Or designing cars. Or selling retail products. We might find that thebest way to do a task thattoday is done by five fulltimepeople would beto use one part-time employeeand a host of freelancecontractors each working for afew minutes a day.
One important type of collective intelligence is 'crowd intelligence', where anyone who wants to can contribute. Sometimes, as in the case of Wikipedia or video-sharing website YouTube, people contribute their work for free because benefits such recognition or socialise with they get other as enjoyment, opportunities to others. In other cases, such as online retailer so eBay, people get paid to do so.
These changes will not happen overnight, but the rate of change is accelerating, and businesspeople a hundred years from now may find the pervasive corporate hierarchies of today as quaint as we find the feudal farming system of an earlier era.
a) three traditional companies.
b) four Internet companies.
a) entries can only be changed by the person who wrote them.
b) has no central control at all.
c) is the largest encyclopedia in the world.
d) is of high quality.
e) copies existing ways of working.
a) two benefits of large organizations.
b) four benefits of small ones.
a) when people have new ideas
b) the ability to work 'as your own boss'
c) to limit the effect of unexpected events
d) when people work with enthusiasm and a sense of purpose
e) the ability to work when and where you want to
f) when high levels of production result in lower costs per unit produced
healthcare b) wholesale c) retail d) design
Task 15. What three benefits do people get from contributing to crowd intelligence websites, apart from money? (paragraph 6)
Task 16. Use correct forms of expressions from paragraph 7 to complete these statements.
a) If something exists in a lot of different places, it is . . . . . . . . . .
b) A social system with aristocrats and almost powerless farmers is . . . . . . . . . .
c) If something doesn't happen immediately, it doesn't happen . . . . . . . . . .
d) Something that is strange and old-fashioned is . . . . . . . . . .
e) If a process speeds up, it . . . . . . . . . .
Over to you 1
Do you share the writer's optimism about the potential of collective intelligence? Why? I Why not?
Over to you 2
Could collective intelligence be used in your own industry, or one that you would like to work in?
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