Tajikistan Research Bibliography

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Tajikistan Research Bibliography 











Compiled by Christian Bleuer  



Tajikistan Research Bibliography 


English Publications 



 edition, March 2013 



Tajikistan Research Resources 




Tajikistan Analytical Center 






Compiled by Christian Bleuer 













This bibliography  is an attempt to catalogue the publications in English that 

focus on Tajikistan. English language sources on Tajikistan are weak in some 

areas, especially in regards to the Soviet era.  This bibliography is,  for  the 

moment, confined to  publications in social sciences, history, area studies, 

government and policy.  


Inclusion of a source in this bibliography is not an endorsement. The quality of 

articles, report and books listed here will vary.  Suggestions for additional 

sources appreciated.  


To check for an updated version, please visit: 














Table of contents 



1. History……………………………………3. 

2. Identity 

(a) Tajik Identity…………..………7. 

(b) Ethnic Minorities…………….10. 

3. Religion…………………………………..12. 

4. Civil War………………………………….17. 

5. Post-Conflict Era and Security…….24. 

6. Foreign relations……………………….33. 

7. Society and Governance……………..37. 

8. Gender………………………………….….44. 

9. Education………………………………....47. 

10. Narcotics…………………………………49. 

11. Agriculture and Environment……..50. 






1. History  


Abdullaev, Kamoludin, and Shahram Akbarzadeh. 2010. Historical dictionary of 

Tajikistan. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.  


Abdoullaev, Kamoludin. 1994. ‘Central Asian Emigres in  Afghanistan: First 

Wave, 1920-31’, Central Asia Monitor, No. 4&5. 


Aini, K. S. and Y. S. Maltsev. 1988. ‘Oriental studies in Tajikistan’, Iranian 

Studies, Volume 21, Issue 1&2. 


Bashiri, Iraj. 2002. Prominent Tajik figures of the twentieth century





Bergne, Paul. 2007. The Birth of Tajikistan: National Identity and the Origins of 

the Republic. London/New York: I. B. Tauris. 


Bleuer, Christian. 2012. ‘Muslim Soldiers in Non-Muslim Militaries at War in 

Muslim Lands: The Soviet, American and Indian Experience’, Journal of Muslim 

Minority Affairs, Vol. 32(4). 


Bleuer, Christian. 2012. ‘State-Building, Migration and Economic Development 

on the Frontiers of Northern Afghanistan and Southern Tajikistan’, Journal of 

Eurasian Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1. 



Brown, Bess. 1990. ‘Unrest in Tajikistan’, RFE/RL  Report on the USSR 



Bushkov, V. I. 2000. ‘Population Migration in Tajikistan: Past and Present’, 

JCAS Symposium Series, No. 9. 


Bushkov, V. I. 1993. ‘Population of Northern Tajikistan (1870-1990)’, in State, 

Religion and Society in Central Asia: A Post Soviet Critique, edited by Vitaly 

Naumkin. Reading: Ithaca Press. 


Centlivres, Pierre and Micheline Centlivres-Demont. 1997. ‘Tajikistan and 

Afghanistan: The Ethnic Groups on Either Side of the Border’, in  Tajikistan: 

The Trials of Independence, edited by Mohammad-Reza Djalili, Frederic Grare 

and Shirin Akiner. New York: St. Martin’s Press.  


Dodkhudoyev, Nazarsho. 1959. Tajikistan: Land of Sunshine. Soviet Booklet No. 

60/L, London.  


Donovan, Leslie. 2007. Causes and consequences of 1970-1971 forced migration 

of the Yaghnobis in the Tajik SSR. MA, California State University. 




Dudoignon, Stephane A. 2000. ‘The Role of Migrant Communities in the Politics 

of Central Asia: Prolegomenas for Further Comparative Studies: The Cases of 

Tajikistan and Tatarstan in the 1980s’,

 JCAS Symposium Series, No. 9 


Dupree, Louis. 1964. ‘From Moscow to Soviet Central Asia: A New Class 

Emerges?’, American Universities Field Staff Reports Service, South Asia 

Series, Vol. VIII No. 5. 


Dupree, Louis. 1959. ‘Two weeks in Soviet Tajikistan and Uzbekistan: 

Observations and Trends’, American Universities Field Staff Reports Service, 

South Asia Series, Vol. III, No. 4. 


Goyette, Arthur Vincent. 1974. Ideology and industrial development: the case of 

Soviet Central Asia. PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.  


Hammer, Michel. 1997. ‘Perestroika as seen by some Tajik Historians’, in 

Tajikistan:  The Trials of Independence, edited by  Mohammad-Reza Djalili, 

Frederic Grare and Shirin Akiner. New York: St. Martin’s Press. 


Human Rights Watch. 1991. ‘Conflict in the Soviet Union: Tadzhikistan’, New 



Kalinovsky, Artemy M. 2011. ‘Soviet Central Asia and the Afghan War’, IREX 

Research Brief. 



Kassymbekova, Botakoz. 2011. ‘Humans as territory: forced resettlement and 

the making of Soviet Tajikistan, 1920–38’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 30(3-4). 



Luknitskii, Pavel. 1954. Soviet Tajikistan. Moscow: Foreign Language 

Publishing House. 


Marsa, Gerald and Yochanan Altman. 1986. ‘The cultural  bases of Soviet 

Central Asia’s second economy (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan)’, Central Asian 

Survey, 5(3/4). 


Masov, Rahim. 1996. The History of a National Catastrophe. Edited and 

Translated by Iraj Bashiri, The University of Minnesota. 




Middleton, Robert and Huw Thomas. 2012. Tajikistan and the High Pamirs

Hong Kong: Odyssey Books.  


Naby, E. 1978. ‘Bobodzhon Gafurovich Gafurov, 1908-1977’,  Slavic Review

Vol. 37, No. 2.  


Newth, J. A. 1963. ‘The 'Establishment' in Tajikistan I’, Soviet Studies, Vol. 14, 



Newth, J. A. 1963. ‘The 'Establishment' in Tajikistan II’, Soviet Studies, Vol. 15, 

No. 1. 


Niyazi, Aziz. 1993. ‘The Year of Tumult: Tajikistan after February 1990’, in 

State, Religion and Society in Central Asia: A Post Soviet Critique, edited by V. 

Naumkin. Reading: Ithaca Press. 


Nourzhanov, Kirill and Christian Bleuer. 2013 (forthcoming). Tajikistan: A 

Political and Social History. Canberra: Australian National University Press.  


Nourzhanov, Kirill. 1997. Politics and change in Tajikistan. PhD dissertation, 

Australian National University. 


Nourzhanov, Kirill. 2008. ‘Reassessing the Basmachi: warlords without 

ideology?’ Journal of South Asia and Middle East Studies, Vol. 31, No. 3. 


Penati, Beatrice. 2007. ‘The Reconquest of East Bukhara: the struggle against 

the Basmachi as a prelude to Sovietization’, Central Asia Survey, Vol. 26, No. 4. 


Rakowska-Harmstone, Teresa. 1970. Russia and Nationalism in Central Asia: 

The Case of Tadzhikistan. Baltimore/London: The Johns Hopkins Press. 


Riordan, John P. 2008. ‘Red DIME: Dissecting the Bolshevik Liquidation 

Campaign in the Ferghana Valley against the Basmachi Resistance’, SAMS 






Ritter, William S. 1990. ‘Revolt in the Mountains: Fuzail Maksum and the 

Occupation of Garm, Spring 1929’, Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 25, 

No. 4. 


Ritter, William S. 1985. ‘The Final Phase in the Liquidation of Anti-Soviet 

Resistance in Tadzhikistan: Ibrahim Bek and the Basmachi, 1924-31’,  Soviet 

Studies, Vol. 37(4). 


Roy, Olivier. 2000. The New Central Asia: The Creation of Nations. New York: 

NYU Press. 


Schoeberlein, John S. 2000. ‘Shifting Ground: How the Soviet Regime Used 

Resettlement to Transform Central Asian Society and the Consequences of This 

Policy Today’, JCAS Symposium Series, No. 9. 


Sengupta, Anita. 2000. ‘Imperatives of national territorial delimitation and the 

fate of Bukhara 1917-1924, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 19, No. 3-4. 

































2. Identity 


(a) Tajik ethnic identity, Nationalism, ethnogenesis and historiography: 


Abashin, Sergei. 2003. ‘The transformation of ethnic identity in Central Asia: a 

case study of the Uzbeks and Tajiks’, Russian Regional Perspectives Journal

Vol. 1(2).  


Atai, Farhad. 2012. ‘Soviet Cultural Legacy in Tajikistan’, Iranian Studies, Vol. 

45, No. 1. 


Atkin, Muriel. 2012. ‘Token Constitutionalism and Islamic Opposition in 

Tajikistan’, Journal of Persianate Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2. 


Atkin, Muriel. 1994. ‘Tajiks and the Persian World’, in Central Asia in Historical 

Perspective, edited by Beatrice F. Manz. Oxford: Westview Press. 


Atkin, Muriel. 1993. ‘Tajik national identity’, Iranian Studies, Vol. 26, No. 1. 


Atkin, Muriel. 1993. ‘Tajikistan: Ancient Heritage, New Politics’, in Nations and 

Politics in the Soviet Successor States, edited by  Ian Bremmer and R. Taras. 

Cambridge University Press. 


Bashiri, Iraj. 1998. ‘Factors Affecting Tajik Identity’, 



Bashiri, Iraj. 1998. ‘Tajik Ethnicity in Historical Perspective’, 




Becka, Jiri. 1980. Sadriddin Ayni: Father of Tajik Culture. Naples: Instituto 

Universitario Orientale. 


Beeman, William O. 2005. ‘Persian, Dari and Tajik in Central Asia’, The 

National Council for Eurasian and East European Research. 




Beeman, William O. 1999. ‘The Struggle for Identity in Post-Soviet Tajikistan’, 

Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 3, No. 4. 


Beigi, Khashayar. 2012. ‘Language and globalization in post-independence 

Tajikistan’, IREX Research Brief. 




Bekhradnia, Shahin. 1994. ‘The Tajik case for a Zoroastrian identity’, Religion, 

State and Society, Volume 22, Issue 1. 


Blakkisrud, Helge, and Shahnoza Nozimova. 2010. ‘History writing and nation 

building in post-independence Tajikistan’, Nationalities Papers, Vol. 38, No. 2. 


Boboyorov, Hafiz. 2011. Kinship and Islam: The Role of Collective Identities in 

Shaping Institutional Order of Patronage in Southern Tajikistan. PhD 

Dissertation, Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn. 



Bosworth, C.E. and B.G. Fragner. 2009. ‘Tadjik’, in Encyclopaedia of Islam. 2



Edition. Edited by P. Bearman et al. Netherlands: Brill. 


Chika, Obiya. 2001. ‘When Faizulla Khojaev Decided to Be an Uzbek’, in Islam 

and Politics in Russia and Central Asia (Early Eighteenth to Late Twentieth 

Centuries), edited by Stéphane Dudoignon and Komatsu Hisao. London/New 

York: Kegan Paul. 


Chvyr, Ludmila. 1993. ‘Central Asia's Tajiks: Self-identification and Ethnic 

Identity’, in State, Religion and Society in Central Asia: A Post-Soviet Critique

edited by Vitaly Naumkin. Reading: Ithaca Press. 


Dodykhudoeva, Leila R. 2004. ‘Original scientific paper Ethno-Cultural 

Heritage of the Peoples of West Pamir’, Coll. Antropol., 28 Suppl. 1. 


Foltz, Richard. 1996. ‘Uzbekistan’s Tajiks: a Case of Repressed Identity’, 

Central Asia Monitor, Vol. 6. 


Hickson,  Jill E. 2003. ‘Using Law to Create National Identity: The course to 

democracy in Tajikistan’, Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 38 (Spring). 


Horsman, Stuart. 2006. ‘The politics of toponyms in the Pamir mountains’, 

Area, Vol. 38, No. 2. 


Horsman, Stuart. 1999. ‘The Tajik Minority in Contemporary Uzbekistani 

Politics’, in Ethnicity and Democratisation in the New Europe, edited by K. 

Cordell. London: Routledge. 


Jahangiri, Guissou. 1997. ‘The Premises for the Construction of a Tajik 

National Identity, 1920-1930’, in Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence, edited 

by  Mohammad-Reza Djalili, Frederic Grare and Shirin Akiner. New York: St. 

Martin’s Press. 


Jernudd, Bjorn. 1965. ‘The Language Situation in Tadzhik SSR’, 

Anthropological Linguistics, Vol. 7, No. 3, Part II. 


Kayani, Saima Ashraf. 2006. Islam and Nationalism in Tajikistan. PhD 

dissertation, Quaid-i-Azam University. 




Laruelle, Marlene. 2007. ‘The Return of the Aryan Myth: Tajikistan in Search of 

a Secularized National Ideology’, Nationalities Papers, Vol. 35, No. 1. 


Levi, Scott C. 2007. ‘Turk and Tajik in Central Asian History’, in Everyday Life 

in Central Asia, edited by J. Sahadeo and R. Zanca. Bloomington: Indiana 

University Press. 



Manetta, Emily. 2011. ‘Journey into paradise: Tajik representations of Afghan 

Badakhshan’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 30, No. 3-4. 


Marat, Erica. 2008. ‘National Ideology and Statebuilding in Kyrgyzstan and 

Tajikistan’, Silk Road Paper. 




Markowitz, Lawrence P. 2009. ‘How master frames mislead: the division and 

eclipse of nationalist movements in Uzbekistan and Tajikistan’, Ethnic and 

Racial Studies, Vol. 32, No. 4. 


Nourzhanov, Kirill and Christian Bleuer. 2013 (forthcoming). Tajikistan: A 

Political and Social History. Canberra: Australian National University Press. 


Nourzhanov, Kirill. 2001. ‘The Politics of History in Tajikistan: Reinventing the 

Samanids’, Harvard Asia Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 1. 


Payne, John. 1990. ‘Tajikistan and the Tajiks’, in The Nationalities Question in 

the Post-Soviet States, edited by Graham Smith. London: Longman, 2




Rahmonov, Emomali. 2001. The Tajiks in the Mirror of History: From the Aryans 

to the Samanids. Guernsey, United Kingdom: London River Editions. 


Roche, Sophie and Sophie Hohmann. 2011. ‘Wedding rituals and the struggle 

over national identities’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 30, No. 1. 


Rosen, Barry. 1973. ‘An Awareness of Traditional Tajik Identity in Central 

Asia’, in The Nationality Question in Soviet Central Asia, edited by Edward 

Allworth. New York: Praeger. 


Rowe, W. C. 2011. ‘Geolinguistics, culture, and politics in the development and 

maintenance of Tajiki’, Journal of Cultural Geography, Vol. 28, No. 2. 


Schoeberlein-Engel, John S. 1994. Identity in Central Asia: Construction and 

contention in the conceptions of "Ozbek," "Tajik," "Muslim," "Samarqandi" and 

other groups. PhD dissertation, Harvard University. 


Spinetti, Federico.  2006.  Music, politics and identity in post-Soviet Tajikistan

PhD, University of London. 


Spinetti, Federico. 2005. ‘Open Borders. Tradition  and Tajik Popular Music: 

Questions of Aesthetics, Identity and Political Economy’, Ethnomusicology 

Forum, Vol. 14, No. 2. 


Subtelny, Maria Eva. 1994. ‘The Symbiosis of Turk and Tajik’, in Central Asia 

in Historical Perspective, edited by B. F. Manz. Oxford: Westview Press. 


Tompkins, Zenia H. 2010. ‘Language and identity in Tajikistan: A literary 

approach’, IREX Research Brief. 





Wennberg, Franz. 2002. ‘The Globality of Tajik Nationalisms: A Research Note’, 

Central Asian Survey, Vol. 21, No. 4. 


Weryho. Jan W. 1983. ‘Modern Tajiki Persian: Gharbzadagi of a different kind’, 

Nationalities Papers, Vol. 11, No. 1. 


Yountchi, Lisa. 2011. ‘The politics of scholarship and the scholarship of 

politics: Imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet scholars studying Tajikistan’, in The 

Heritage of Soviet Oriental Studies, ed. by Michael Kemper and Stephan 

Conermann. Routledge. 




(b) Ethnic minorities, interethnic relations and identity 


Abashin, Sergei. 2003. ‘The transformation of ethnic identity in Central Asia: a 

case study of the Uzbeks and Tajiks’, Russian Regional Perspectives Journal

Vol. 1(2).  


Akbarzadeh, Shahram. 1997. ‘A Note on Shifting Identities in the Ferghana 

Valley’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 16, No. 1.   


Bleuer, Christian. 2007. Uzbeks Versus the Center: Mobilization as an Ethnic 

Minority in the Tajikistan and Afghanistan Civil Wars. MA, Indiana 





Bozrikova, T. N. 2004. ‘Problems of Ethnic Minorities in Tajikistan’, Working 

Paper prepared for the UN OHCHR. 

Word Doc


Ferrando, Olivier. 2011. ‘Soviet population transfers and interethnic relations 

in Tajikistan: assessing the concept of ethnicity’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 30, 

No. 1. 


Foltz , Richard. 1996. ‘The Tajiks of Uzbekistan’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 15, 

No. 2. 


Fumagalli, Matteo. 2007. ‘Framing ethnic minority mobilisation in Central Asia: 

The cases of the Uzbeks in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan’, Europe-Asia Studies

Vol. 59 (4). 


Fumagalli, Matteo. 2005. The Dynamics of Uzbek Ethno-political Mobilization in 

Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan: 1991-2003. PhD diss, University of Edinburgh. 


Hierman, Brent. 2010. ‘What use was the election to us? Clientelism and 

political trust amongst ethnic Uzbeks in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan’, 

Nationalities Papers, Vol. 38(2). 




Horák, Slavomír. 2010. ‘In Search of the History of Tajikistan: What Are Tajik 

and Uzbek Historians Arguing About?’, Russian Politics and Law, Vol. 48(5). 


Leitich, Keith. 2003. ‘Ethnic Conflict in the Near Abroad: The Case of Russians 

in Tajikistan’, International Journal of Central Asian Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1.  


Olimov, M. A. and Saodat Olimova. 2002 ‘Ethnic Factors and Local Self-

Government in Tajikistan’, in Local Governance and Minority Empowerment in 

the CIS, edited by Valery Tishkov and Elena Filippova. Budapest: LGI Books/ 

Open Society Institute. 


Schoeberlein-Engel, John S. 1994. Identity in Central Asia: Construction and 

contention in the conceptions of "Ozbek," "Tajik," "Muslim," "Samarqandi" and 

other groups. PhD dissertation, Harvard University. 


Schoeberlein-Engel, John. 1994. ‘Conflicts in Tajikistan and Central Asia: The 

Myth of Ethnic Animosity’, Harvard Middle Eastern and Islamic Review, Vol. 1, 

No. 2. 


Wilson, Sophia. 2010. ‘Nationalism, Ethnic Minorities and Judicial Behavior in 

the Post-Soviet World’, Western Political Science Association 2010 Annual 

Meeting Paper. 

Available at SSRN





























3. Religion 



Abashin, Sergei.  2006. ‘The logic of Islamic practice: a religious conflict in 

Central Asia’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 25, No. 3. 


Akcali, Pinar. 1998. ‘Islam and Ethnicity in Central Asia: The Case of the 

Islamic Renaissance Party’, Mediterranean Quarterly, Winter. 


Arabov, Oumar. 2004. ‘A note on Sufism in Tajikistan: what does it look like?’, 

Central Asian Survey, Vol. 23, No. 3-4.  


Arabov, Oumar. 2003. ‘Religion in Tajikistan: A Decade After the Breakup of 

the USSR’, International Journal of Central Asian Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1.  


Atkin, Muriel. 1995. ‘Islam as Faith Politics and Bogeyman in Tajikistan’, The 

Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, edited by Michael 

Bourdeaux. London/New York: M.E. Sharpe. 


Atkin, Muriel. 1989. ‘The Survival of Islam in Soviet Tajikistan’, The Middle 

East Journal, Vol. 43, No. 4. 


Atkin, Muriel. 1989. The Subtlest Battle: Islam in Soviet Tajikistan

Philadelphia: Foreign Policy Research Institute. 


Bitter, Jean-Nicolas et al, eds. 2005. From Confidence Building Towards 

Cooperative Co-existence: The Tajik Experiment of Islamic-Secular Dialogue

Baden Baden: Nomos. 


Blitt, Robert C. and W. Cole Durham. 2008. ‘Analysis of the Republic of 

Tajikistan’s Draft Law ‘About Freedom of Conscience and Religious Unions’’, 

The University of Tennessee College of Law, Legal Studies Research Paper 

Series, No. 26. 




Boboyorov, Hafiz. 2011. Kinship and Islam: The Role of Collective Identities in 

Shaping Institutional Order of Patronage in Southern Tajikistan. PhD 

Dissertation, Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn. 


Carrere d’Encausse, Helene. “Civil War and New Government,” in Central Asia, 

One Hundred and Thirty Years of Russian Dominance: A Historical Overview

edited by Edward Allworth. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1994. 


De Cordier, Bruno. 2008. ‘Islamic faith-based development organizations in 

former Soviet Muslim environments: The Mountain Societies Development 

Support Programme in the Rasht valley, Tajikistan’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 

27, No. 2. 




Di Maio, Micah and J. Abenstein. 2011. ‘Policy Analysis: Tajikistan’s 

Peacebuilding Efforts through Promotion of Hanafi Islam’, Journal of 

Peacebuilding & Development, Vol. 6 No. 1. 


Dudoignon, S. 2011. ‘From revival to mutation: the religious personnel of Islam 

in Tajikistan, from de-Stalinization to independence (1955-91)’,  Central Asian 

Survey, Vol. 30, No. 1. 


Dudoignon, Stephane. 2004. ‘Local Lore, the Transmission of Learning, and 

Communal Identity in  Late 20th-Century Tajikistan’, in Devout Societies vs. 

Impious States? Transmitting Islamic Learning in Russia, Central Asia and 

China, through the Twentieth Century, edited by Stephane Dudoignon. Berlin: 

Klaus Schwarz Verlag.  


Dudoignon, Stéphane A. and Komatsu, Hisao (eds.). 2001. Islam in Politics of 

Russia and Central Asia (Early Eighteenth to Late Twentieth Centuries. London: 

Kegan Paul. 


Epkenhans, Tim. 2011. ‘Defining normative Islam: some remarks on 

contemporary Islamic thought in Tajikistan - Hoji Akbar Turajonzoda's Sharia 

and society’, Central Asian Survey, Vol. 30, No. 1. 


Epkenhans, T. 2010. ‘Muslims without learning, clergy without faith: 

institutions of Islamic learning in the Republic of Tajikistan’, Islamic education 

in the Soviet Union and its successor states, edited by M. Kemper, et al. London: 



Epkenhans, Tim. 2009. ‘Regulating religion in Post-Soviet Central Asia: Some 

remarks on Religious Association Law and ‘official’ Islamic institutions in 

Tajikistan’, Security and Human Rights, No. 1. 


Gatling, Benjamin. 2012. Post-Soviet Sufism: Texts and the Performance of 

Tradition in Tajikistan. PhD dissertation, The Ohio State University. 


Gretsky, Sergei. 1994. “Profile: Qadi Akbar Turajonzoda,” Central Asia Monitor

Vol. 3, No. 1. 


Iloliev, Abdulmamad. 2008. ‘Popular culture and religious metaphor: saints 

and shrines in Wakhan region of Tajikistan’, Central Asian Survey, Volume 27, 

Issue 1. 


Kabiri, Muhiddin. 2012. ‘Transcript of Mr. Kabiri’s speech and discussion at 

the Central Asia Program, George Washington University, October 16, 2012’, 

Voices From Central Asia, No. 8. 




Karagiannis, Emmanuel. 2006. ‘The challenge of radical Islam in Tajikistan: 

Hizb ut Tahrir al-Islami’, Nationalities Papers, Vol. 34, No. 1. 




Karim, M.A. 2007. The decline and fall of scientific atheism in Uzbekistan 

and Tajikistan, 1964-91. MPhil thesis, De Montfort University. 


Kayani, Saima Ashraf. 2006. Islam and Nationalism in Tajikistan. PhD 

dissertation, Quaid-i-Azam University. 




Khalid, Adeeb. 2007. Islam after Communism: Religion and Politics in Central 

Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press. 


Makhamov, M. 1994. ‘Islam and the political development of Tajikistan after 

1985’, in Central Asia: Strategic Importance and Future Prospects, edited by 

Hafeez Malik. Basingstoke: Macmillan. 


Marshallsay, Zaniah. 2009. ‘The State and Islam in Kazakhstan and Tajikistan: 

Managing religion in a secular environment’, Paper presented to the 

Australasian Political Studies Association Annual Conference. 




Martin, Keith. 1997. ‘Regional and Religious Politics in Uzbekistan and 

Tajikistan: Some Preliminary Notes’, Demokratizatsiya, Vol. 5, No. 3. 


Middleton, Robert and Huw Thomas. 2012. Tajikistan and the High Pamirs

Hong Kong: Odyssey Books.  


Mullojonov, Parviz. 2001. ‘The Islamic Clergy in Tajikistan since the End of the 

Soviet Period’, in Islam in Politics in Russia and Central Asia (Early Eighteenth to 

Late Twentieth Centuries), edited by S.A. Dudoignon and K. Hisao, New York: 

Kegan Paul. 


Naumkin, Vitaly V. 2005. Radical Islam in Central Asia: Between Pen and Rifle

Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. 


Niiazi, Aziz and S. Lang. 1997. ‘Islam in Tajikistan’, Anthropology & Archeology 

of Eurasia, Vol. 36, No 2. 


Niyazi, Aziz. 1999. ‘Islam and Tajikistan’s Human and Ecological Crisis’, in 

Civil Society in Central Asia, edited by M. H. Ruffin and D. C. Waugh. Seattle: 

University of Washington Press. 


Niyazi, Aziz. 1998. ‘Islam in Tajikistan: Tradition and modernity’, Religion, State 

and Society, Vol. 26, No. 1. 


Nourzhanov, Kirill and Christian Bleuer. 2013 (forthcoming). Tajikistan: A 

Political and Social History. Canberra: Australian National University Press. 


Olimova, Saodat and Farkhod Tolipov. 2011. ‘Islamic Revival in Central Asia: 

The cases of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan’, Documentos CIDOB ASIA 26 . 






Olimova, Saodat and Muzaffar Olimov. 2001. ‘The Islamic Renaissance Party’, 

in Politics of Compromise: The Tajikistan Peace Process, edited by K. Abdullaev 

and C. Barnes. London: Conciliation Resources. 


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