Vegetarianism is part of a lifestyle with many attitudes and behaviors


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https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-eating-plate/

  • https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-eating-plate/

  • http://www.vegetariantimes.com/

  • http://www.meatlessmonday.com/

  • https://www.supertracker.usda.gov/Login.aspx

  • http://www.nutrisutton.com/





Vegetarianism is part of a lifestyle with many attitudes and behaviors

  • Vegetarianism is part of a lifestyle with many attitudes and behaviors

  • Vegetarian diets are pro-environment

  • Vegetarian diets are health-promoting

  • Traditional vegetarian diets provide a wide variety of nutritious foods.



Vegetarians number in the hundreds of millions

  • Vegetarians number in the hundreds of millions

  • Much of world is mainly vegetarian because meat is scarce and expensive

  • People may adopt vegetarian diets because of:

    • religious beliefs
    • humanitarian concerns
    • desire to cause no harm to animals
    • desire to preserve the environment
    • desire to preserve food supply by “eating low on the food chain”
    • believe that animal products are unhealthful or unsafe
    • want to keep their weight down
    • want to lower the risk of cancer or heart disease


Hinduism (originated before 1200 BC)

  • Hinduism (originated before 1200 BC)

  • Jainism originated ~500 BC

  • Buddhism originated ~500 BC

  • and spread to Tibet, China, and Japan

  • Often Vegetarian due to reverence for life and belief in karma and reincarnation

  • Plant foods have prana, life energy

  • Ahimsa, not harming living beings



Socrates, Plato, Epicurus and Pythagoras advocated vegetarianism

  • Socrates, Plato, Epicurus and Pythagoras advocated vegetarianism

  • for reasons of compassion:

  • “For as long as men massacre animals, they will kill each other. Indeed, he who sows the seed of murder and pain can not reap joy and love.”

  • Pythagoras ~530 BC



Christian vegetarian traditions include Trappist monks and many others, motivated by compassion and also a desire to live simply.

  • Christian vegetarian traditions include Trappist monks and many others, motivated by compassion and also a desire to live simply.

  • “Not to hurt our humble brethren (the animals) is our first duty to them… men who will exclude any of God’s creatures from the shelter of compassion and pity, will deal likewise with their fellow men.”

  • St. Francis of Assisi, c. 1200



Began in England in early 1800’s

  • Began in England in early 1800’s

  • Health was the main concern

  • Belief that meat was harmful to the body

  • U.S: Seventh Day Adventist Church, 1863

  • 13 million members worldwide

  • “temperate and healthy lifestyle”

  • Church owns large vegetarian food companies

  • Many church members today are lacto-ovo vegetarians



Mahatma Ghandi:

  • Mahatma Ghandi:

  • "The greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated."

  • Martin Luther King, Jr:

  • - "One day the absurdity of the almost universal human belief in the slavery of other animals will be palpable. We shall then have discovered our souls and become worthier of sharing this planet with them."



Should the humanist movement, with its dedication to affirm the inherent worth and dignity of each individual, consider the worth and dignity of …animals?

  • Should the humanist movement, with its dedication to affirm the inherent worth and dignity of each individual, consider the worth and dignity of …animals?



- "Nothing will benefit human health and increase chances of survival for life on earth as much as the evolution to a vegetarian diet." -Albert Einstein

  • - "Nothing will benefit human health and increase chances of survival for life on earth as much as the evolution to a vegetarian diet." -Albert Einstein



Dec

  • Dec

  • 2015



Meat protein production requires:

  • Meat protein production requires:

    • 6-17 times more land
    • 4-26 times as much water
    • up to ?? times as much fossil fuel as the equivalent amount of vegetable protein






Emissions of greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, biocides

  • Emissions of greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, biocides

  • and compounds that cause acid rain

  • are at least 6x greater for meat production than for plant food production



Farmland used to produce animal feed.

  • Farmland used to produce animal feed.

  • This land could support 5-10 X as many people on a vegetarian diet.

  • This may be a concern in our lifetime.



If everyone in the U.S. ate meatless just one day a week, it would be the environmental equivalent of not driving 91 billion miles per year

  • If everyone in the U.S. ate meatless just one day a week, it would be the environmental equivalent of not driving 91 billion miles per year



Enough wheat, rice and other grains are produced to provide every human being with 2,700 calories a day.

  • Enough wheat, rice and other grains are produced to provide every human being with 2,700 calories a day.

  • In addition, are vegetables, beans, nuts, root crops, fruits, grass-fed meats, and fish

  • But many people are too poor to buy readily available food.

  • www.foodfirst.org





  • •American Vegetarian Society says vegetarians eat no meat, poultry, fish

  • Flexitarians eat much less meat than American average

  • May avoid all red meats



  • Lacto-vegetarians

  • Lacto-ovo vegetarians

  • Vegans



Empathy for all creatures and appreciation and love of ecology

  • Empathy for all creatures and appreciation and love of ecology

  • Live without consuming or otherwise harming animals:

  • Eat no animal products

  • Avoid use of animal products

  • This diet requires nutrition knowledge to be adequate especially for pregnant women and children.



“Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence

  • “Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence

  • Official position of the U.S. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (U.S.) and Dietitians of Canada



Variety

  • Variety

    • Fruits
    • Vegetables
    • Grains
    • Nuts
    • Seeds
    • Beans
    • Dairy
    • **


One research study showed that life expectancy of a 30-year-old vegetarian Adventist woman was 85.7 years,

  • One research study showed that life expectancy of a 30-year-old vegetarian Adventist woman was 85.7 years,

  • 6.1 years longer than average

  • For a vegetarian Adventist man, life expectancy was 83.3 years, 9.5 years longer than average







Higher intake of mono and polyunsaturated fats

  • Higher intake of mono and polyunsaturated fats

  • Lower intake of saturated fats

  • Higher intake of phytochemicals

  • Higher intake of fiber





Intake of marine-based omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly from fish) ass. w/ lower respiratory disease mortality and sudden cardiac death.

  • Intake of marine-based omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly from fish) ass. w/ lower respiratory disease mortality and sudden cardiac death.

  • Intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ass. w/ lower risk of total death and death due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and respiratory disease.



Those who replaced saturated fats with unsaturated fats—especially polyunsaturated fats—had significantly lower risk of death overall during the study period, as well as lower risk of death from CVD, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and respiratory disease

  • Those who replaced saturated fats with unsaturated fats—especially polyunsaturated fats—had significantly lower risk of death overall during the study period, as well as lower risk of death from CVD, cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and respiratory disease









Cancer-promoting diets:

  • Cancer-promoting diets:

  • Low in vegetables and fruits

  • High in red meats, saturated fat, regular intake of charred and nitrate-cured meats, and excessive alcohol are associated with cancer

  • Low intakes of whole grains, dried beans, nuts, and seeds increase cancer risk



Study of 478,000 men and women: Those who ate the most red meat (about 5 ounces a day or more) were about 30% more likely to develop colon cancer than those who ate the least red meat (less than an ounce a day).

  • Study of 478,000 men and women: Those who ate the most red meat (about 5 ounces a day or more) were about 30% more likely to develop colon cancer than those who ate the least red meat (less than an ounce a day).

  • Study of 148,610 people showed a high consumption of red and processed meats was linked to a substantial increase in the risk of cancer in the lower colon and rectum.



A meta-analysis of 29 studies of meat consumption and colon cancer concluded that a high consumption of red meat increases risk by 28%, and a high consumption of processed meat increases risk by 20%.

  • A meta-analysis of 29 studies of meat consumption and colon cancer concluded that a high consumption of red meat increases risk by 28%, and a high consumption of processed meat increases risk by 20%.

  • Other studies show that eating more red meat increases risk of pancreatic and stomach cancers

  • Eating poultry or seafood is not shown to increase risk, and seafood may decrease risk



Diets containing vegetables, fruits,

  • Diets containing vegetables, fruits,

  • whole grains, all rich

  • in phytochemicals, are strongly associated with low rates of

  • chronic heart disease and cancer



Chemical substances found in plants

  • Chemical substances found in plants

  • Thousands of phytochemicals in plants, and some foods contain hundreds

  • Not essential, we do not develop a deficiency disease if we consume too

  • little

  • The body cannot make them

  • they must be obtained from the diet



Phytochemicals are associated with a reduced risk of developing:

  • Phytochemicals are associated with a reduced risk of developing:

    • heart disease
    • certain types of cancer (lung, breast, cervical, esophageal, stomach, and colon cancer)
    • age-related macular degeneration, cataracts
    • infectious diseases
    • Type 2 diabetes
    • Hypertension, stroke
    • and other disorders
  • Evidence supports role for phytochemicals

  • *Clinical studies to demonstrate cause-and-effect relationships have yet to be completed



Many phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits are antioxidants: may participate in cancer prevention by protecting cells from damage due to oxidation and by inhibiting the multiplication of abnormal cells

  • Many phytochemicals in vegetables and fruits are antioxidants: may participate in cancer prevention by protecting cells from damage due to oxidation and by inhibiting the multiplication of abnormal cells

  • Vitamin C, beta-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium are well-known antioxidants in vegetables and fruits

  • Oxidation can damage and cause cancer initiation

  • Antioxidants are able to repair damaged DNA



  • heart disease cancer

  • Type 2 diabetes infections

  • eye disease premature aging

  • and a number of other health problems



Diets with few or no animal products may be low in sources of complete protein, vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, and zinc

  • Diets with few or no animal products may be low in sources of complete protein, vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, and zinc

  • With a good traditional diet or with knowledgeable food selection, nutrient inadequacies will not occur



Animal products (meat, eggs, dairy) provide all nine essential amino acids in the right balance

  • Animal products (meat, eggs, dairy) provide all nine essential amino acids in the right balance

  • Soy proteins are also complete protein sources.

  • Body needs sufficient essential amino acids to build and replace protein substances

  • Essential amino acids are not stored, body needs fresh each day



Grains are low in Lysine

  • Grains are low in Lysine

  • Legumes are low in Sulfur-containing amino acids:

      • Methionine
      • Cysteine






Milk, 16 oz. 16 grams

  • Milk, 16 oz. 16 grams

  • 1/2 cup oatmeal 3 g

  • Peanut butter

  • sandwich 16 g

  • 1 cup rice and

  • beans 10 g

  • TOTAL 45 grams

  • A 50 lb. Child needs 25 grams protein daily



To determine your RDA for protein, you can multiply your weight in pounds by 0.36 to get grams of protein.

  • To determine your RDA for protein, you can multiply your weight in pounds by 0.36 to get grams of protein.

  • If you are obese, you can estimate your protein needs using a weight of 200 pounds.

  • The Institute of Medicine sets a wide range for acceptable protein intake—from 10 to 35 percent of calories each day, but the higher intake is often accompanied by a high saturated fat intake.



Many combinations of plant foods yield complete proteins

  • Many combinations of plant foods yield complete proteins

  • Soy products will complement other plant proteins

  • Milk and eggs, like meat, contain complete proteins and will complement the essential amino acids profile of any plant source of protein

  • Complementary protein sources should be consumed throughout the day



Vitamin B12 naturally present only in animal products

  • Vitamin B12 naturally present only in animal products

  • Vegetarians who don’t consume animal products can easily obtain vitamin B12 from fortified products such as soy milk and breakfast cereals or from a multivitamin or B12 supplement



People get vitamin D from the sun and from fortified milk

  • People get vitamin D from the sun and from fortified milk

  • Vitamin D is found in few foods- most of our intake comes from vitamin D-fortified milk or soy milk (cheese and yogurt seldom fortified)

  • If milk is not part of the diet and exposure of the skin to sunlight is limited, we need to get vitamin D from fortified soy milk, breakfast cereal, or a multivitamin with vitamin D



Vegetarians who exclude milk and milk products rely on:

  • Vegetarians who exclude milk and milk products rely on:

  • good plant sources of calcium (greens like kale, broccoli, bok choy, and beans)

  • and calcium-fortified products such as soy milk, breakfast cereals, and orange juice

  • If calcium supplements are used, they should include Vitamin D.





A semi-vegetarian or flexitarian diet is plant-based with the occasional inclusion of meat products

  • A semi-vegetarian or flexitarian diet is plant-based with the occasional inclusion of meat products

  • Tony Gonzalez's daily 80/20 diet (80 percent plant-based/20 percent fish or chicken).

    • Retired from Atlanta Falcons in 2013 at age 37


More Beans & Nuts:

  • More Beans & Nuts:

    • Pintos, limas, black beans, etc
    • Nuts, peanuts, peanut butter, soy foods (tofu)
    • Processed vegetarian
    • foods
    • Hummous


Chicken & Turkey

  • Chicken & Turkey

  • Fish & Shellfish ~Twice a week

  • Low Fat Dairy & Eggs

  • Beef/pork: ~4 oz.

    • Twice a week


Learn about low meat or meatless meals from many cultures

  • Learn about low meat or meatless meals from many cultures



Can one day a week make a difference?

  • Can one day a week make a difference?

  • First done in WW I to aid the war effort

  • Returned in WW II to help feed war-ravaged Europe.

  • Revived in 2003 by Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health’s Center for a Livable Future



Now a global movement -learn more at

  • Now a global movement -learn more at

  • http://www.meatlessmonday.com/

  • By pledging to go meatless on Monday just for one month, you will reduce your carbon footprint by almost 33 pounds. So for every 61 people who pledge, we reduce our collective carbon footprint by about one ton per month!



Who's doing it?

  • Who's doing it?

  • On Facebook &

  • Twitter



Plan Meatless Monday menus

  • Plan Meatless Monday menus

    • Southern "4 Vegetable Plate"
    • Try new recipes for a few vegetarian main dishes and share ideas with family & friends
  • Plan fish on Fridays

  • Look for vegetarian options when eating out.

  • Look for other meals with small servings of poultry or red meats along with vegetables



Share your experiences with "Meatless Monday" campaign and ways

  • Share your experiences with "Meatless Monday" campaign and ways

  • you find to reduce

  • meat in your diet.

  • END



If you want to help animals…

  • If you want to help animals…

  • If you want to help the environment

  • If you want to help your health…

  • If you want to enjoy your life…

  • …the simplest, quickest and most effective thing to do is to become a vegetarian



Men who scored highest on USDA’s original Healthy Eating Index reduced risk of heart disease or other chronic disease by 11 percent over 8-12 years of follow-up compared to those who scored lowest.

  • Men who scored highest on USDA’s original Healthy Eating Index reduced risk of heart disease or other chronic disease by 11 percent over 8-12 years of follow-up compared to those who scored lowest.



Women who most closely followed the government’s recommendations were only 3 percent less likely to have developed a chronic disease

  • Women who most closely followed the government’s recommendations were only 3 percent less likely to have developed a chronic disease




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