An Age of Discovery and Expansion


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An Age of Discovery and Expansion

  • An Age of Discovery and Expansion

    • Motives
      • Travels of John Mandeville
      • Fascination with the East
      • The Polos
      • Economic motive
      • Religious zeal
        • “God, glory, and gold”
      • Potrolani (charts)
      • Ships
        • Axial rudder
        • Lateen sails with square rig


Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire

    • Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire
      • Prince Henry “the Navigator” (1394-1460)
        • School for navigators, 1419
      • Slaves
      • Gold
      • Bartolomeu Dias, 1497
        • Cape of Good Hope
      • Admiral Alfonso de Albuquerque
      • Success of the Portuguese


Discoveries and Possessions in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

  • Discoveries and Possessions in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries



Voyages to the New World

    • Voyages to the New World
      • Christopher Columbus (1451-1506)
        • Bahamas – October 12, 1492
        • Voyages in 1493, 1498, 1502
      • John Cabot, 1497
      • Pedro Cabral, 1500
      • Ferdinand Magellan - Del Cano, 1519-1522
      • Treaty of Tordesillas, 1494
    • The Spanish Empire in the New World
      • Hernán Cortés – Mexico, 1519-1522
        • Aztecs
      • Francisco Pizzaro – Peru, 1531-1536


Administration of the Spanish Empire

    • Administration of the Spanish Empire
      • Encomienda
      • Forced labor
      • Disease
      • Audiencias
      • Ecclesiastical affairs
    • Impact of Expansion
      • Destruction of native cultures
      • Enrichment of Europeans
      • National rivalries
      • Belief in European superiority


Philip II and the Height of Spanish Power

  • Philip II and the Height of Spanish Power



Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century

  • Politics and the Wars of Religion in the Sixteenth Century

    • French Wars of Religion, 1562-1598
      • Huguenots
      • Ultra-Catholics
      • War of the three Henries, 1588-1589
      • Politiques
      • Henry of Navarre
        • Edict of Nantes, 1598
    • Philip II and the cause of Militant Catholicism
      • Philip II of Spain, 1556-1598
        • Consolidate lands inherited from his father, Charles V


Government

        • Government
        • Meticulous
        • New World possessions
        • Battle of Lepanto, 1571
        • Spanish Netherlands
      • Revolt of the Netherlands, 1566-1648
        • Privileges of the provinces
        • Taxes
        • Calvinism
        • Duke of Alva
        • William of Nassau, Prince of Orange
          • Pacification of Ghent, 1576
          • Union of Arras, 1579
        • Peace of Westphalia, 1648


The England of Elizabeth

    • The England of Elizabeth
      • Queen Elizabeth I, 1558-1603
        • Act of Supremacy, 1559
        • Act of Unification, 1559
        • Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded 1587
        • Puritans
        • Foreign Policy
        • Netherlands
        • Spanish Armada, 1588
  • Economic and Social Crises

    • Inflation and Economic Stagnation
      • Price revolution
      • Inflation


Trade, Industry, Banking, and Agriculture

    • Trade, Industry, Banking, and Agriculture
      • Joint-stock trading company
      • Technology
      • Commercial capitalism
      • Amsterdam Exchange
      • Agriculture
    • Population and the Growth of Cities
      • Parallels between population growth and economic prosperity
      • Growth of cities
        • Disparity of wealth


The Thirty Years’ War

  • The Thirty Years’ War



Seventeenth-Century Crises: War and Rebellions

  • Seventeenth-Century Crises: War and Rebellions

    • Thirty Years’ War, 1618-1648
      • Located in the Germanic lands
      • Religious problems
        • Peace of Augsburg, 1555
        • German liberties
      • Bohemian Phase, 1618-1625
        • Battle of White Mountain, 1620
      • Danish Phase, 1625-1629
        • Edict of Restitution, 1629
      • Swedish Phase, 1630-1635
      • Franco-Swedish Phase, 1635-1648
      • Peace of Westphalia, 1648


A Military Revolution

    • A Military Revolution
      • Armed infantry
      • Firepower – artillery, firearms
      • Tactics – mobility and flexibility
      • Conscription
    • Rebellions
      • Peasant and lower class revolts
  • Witchcraft Craze

    • Scapegoats
    • Jacob Sprenger and Heinrich Krämer, Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of the Witches), 1486
    • Trials and executions
    • Stereotypes – women


Culture in a Turbulent World

  • Culture in a Turbulent World

    • Art: Mannerism and the Baroque
      • Mannerism
      • El Greco (1541-1614)
        • World of intense emotion
      • Boroque
      • Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640)
      • Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680)
        • Architect – St. Peter’s Basilica


Thought: The World of Montaigne

    • Thought: The World of Montaigne
      • Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)
        • Essays
        • Questions tradition and authority
        • Opposed fanaticism
        • Preached moderation and toleration
        • Moral truths without reference to Christian truths
    • Golden Age of Literature: England and Spain
      • William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
      • Lope de Vega (1562-1635)
      • Miguel de Cervantes (1547-1616)




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