Programmable logic controller a programmable logic controller (plc) or programmable controller

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Khidirov Ilkhomjon.

Programmable logic controllers are intended to be used by engineers without a programming background. For this reason, a graphical programming language called Ladder Diagram (LD, LAD) was first developed. It resembles the schematic diagram of a system built with electromechanical relays and was adopted by many manufacturers and later standardized in the IEC 61131-3 control systems programming standard. As of 2015, it is still widely used, thanks to its simplicity
As of 2015, the majority of PLC systems adhere to the IEC 61131-3 standard that defines 2 textual programming languages: Structured Text (ST; similar to Pascal) and Instruction List (IL); as well as 3 graphical languages: Ladder DiagramFunction Block Diagram (FBD) and Sequential Function Chart (SFC). Instruction List (IL) was deprecated in the third edition of the standard.
Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from the relay-derived ladder logic to programming languages such as specially adapted dialects of BASIC and C.
While the fundamental concepts of PLC programming are common to all manufacturers, differences in I/O addressing, memory organization, and instruction sets mean that PLC programs are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers. Even within the same product line of a single manufacturer, different models may not be directly compatible.

Programming device
PLC programs are typically written in a programming device, which can take the form of a desktop console, special software on a personal computer, or a handheld programming device. Then, the program is downloaded to the PLC directly or over a network. It is stored either in non-volatile flash memory or battery-backed-up RAM. In some programmable controllers, the program is transferred from a personal computer to the PLC through a programming board that writes the program into a removable chip, such as EPROM.
Manufacturers develop programming software for their controllers. In addition to being able to program PLCs in multiple languages, they provide common features like hardware diagnostics and maintenance, software debugging, and offline simulation.
A program written on a personal computer or uploaded from PLC using programming software can be easily copied and backed up on external storage.

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