The Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Innovation of the Republic of Uzbekistan

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Arslonova Risolatxon kurs ishi

The Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Innovation 
of the Republic of Uzbekistan 
Andijan State Institute of Foreign Languages 
Faculty of Foreign Languages 
Faculty of Foreign Languages 
Department of English Language and Literature 
Speciality: Foreign (English) Languages and Literature – 5111400 
Theme: Depiction of “THE GOLD RUSH” themes in American literature in 
various writers. 
Compiled by:  Arslonova Risolatxon 
Supervisor: ______________ 
Andizhan – 2023 

1.The Colifornia Gold Rush.........................................................................24 
2.Definition of ’’ The Gold Rush’’ and its effects to the world ................30 

The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Sh. M. Mirziyoyev has made 
recently 5 Initiatives for the Strategy for Action to improve the youth’s capability 
and their knowledge. On accordance to this suggestions he includes such as activity 
to interesting our youth for the art, theater, cinema and museums; to improve their 
reading skills and made them to read fiction or scientific books; to go in for sport 
and training several kinds of sport games. Generally speaking, the first initiative has 
developed and interested the youths’ capability on the fields of music, art, theater, 
painting, literature other types if art , the second initiative has improved their ability 
on sport and made them training for all kinds of sport; the third initiative has dealt 
effective using computer technologies and making for them suitable condition on 
this area; the fourth initiative has organized systematically to improve the youths’ 
reading books and evaluate widely to read fiction and scientific books and 
developing reading skills; the final fifth initiative is devoted to set women for 
suitable job placements and provide them for work which developed their 
Recently, “Measures to bring quality to a new level of promotion of foreign language 
learning activities in the republic of Uzbekistan” №5117 by our President 
Sh.M.Mirziyoyev on 19 May in 2021. In accordance with the State Program "Year 
of Youth Support and Public Health", in order to develop the teaching of foreign 
languages as a priority of education policy, to radically improve the quality of 
education in this area, attract qualified teachers and increase public interest in 
learning foreign languages: 1. To create under the Cabinet of Ministers the Agency 
for popularization of foreign languages and positions of territorial representatives of 
the Agency in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of Tashkent. The 
main tasks of the Agency are: to create the necessary conditions for the promotion 
of foreign language learning among the population and their perfect mastering, to 
coordinate the introduction of internationally recognized foreign language teaching 

programs and textbooks at all stages of education and to develop modern teaching 
skills in teachers; organization of teaching foreign languages in high demand based 
on the results of the analysis of the needs of regions, industries and educational 
institutions for specialists who have mastered foreign languages; Coordinate the 
development of methodologies and recommendations for language learning that are 
appropriate for all segments of the population in order to introduce a chain of 
continuous education on the principle of "kindergarten-school-higher education 
institution-enterprise" in the field of foreign language teaching; to organize the 
creation of videos, games, entertainment, films and other educational content for the 
thorough mastery of foreign languages, the formation of basic language skills; 
Development of methods of professional translation from the state language into 
foreign languages and from foreign languages into the state language, as well as 
assistance in improving the skills of specialists in this area; to conduct a rating of 
foreign language proficiency by regions, sectors, government agencies and 
educational institutions, to develop proposals for further popularization of foreign 
language learning. 2. To approve the organizational structure of the Agency for 
popularization of foreign languages under the Cabinet of Ministers, the structure of 
its central office and the standard structure of territorial representation of the Agency 
in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of Tashkent according to 
appendices 1-3. Note: The limited number of management staff of the Agency is 73 
people, including 31 in the central office and 42 in the regional offices of the 
Agency; The Agency and its representatives are formed at the expense of 34 state 
units of the Republican Scientific-Practical Center for Development of Innovative 
Methods of Teaching Foreign Languages at the Uzbek State University of World 
Languages, 39 state units of the Ministry of Public Education and the Ministry of 
Higher and Secondary Special Education; The Director of the Agency and his 
deputies shall be appointed and dismissed by a decision of the Cabinet of Ministers; 
The staff of the Agency is equal to the staff of the central office of the Ministry of 
Higher and Secondary Special Education in terms of remuneration, incentives and 
social protection. 3. In order to improve the quality of teaching foreign languages: 

a) Starting from the 2021/2022 academic year, 207 schools specializing in foreign 
language teaching will be established in districts on the basis of general secondary 
education institutions; b) from September 1, 2021 to establish the prize of the 
President of the Republic of Uzbekistan in order to encourage schools that have 
achieved the best results in teaching foreign languages. In this case, the competitions 
for the prize are organized among secondary schools in the following three stages: 
the first stage - held in districts and cities, the winners up to 100 million soums; the 
second stage - held in the Republic of Karakalpakstan, regions and the city of 
Tashkent, the winners up to 250 million soums; The third stage will be held 
nationwide, and the winners will be awarded up to 500 million soums. To the 
Cabinet of Ministers within a month to approve the resolution providing: the list of 
schools specializing in foreign language teaching and the higher education 
institutions attached to them, as well as the program of equipping these schools; The 
order of competitions among schools for the prize of the President of the Republic 
of Uzbekistan. 4. To the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of 
Karakalpakstan, khokims of regions and the city of Tashkent to establish the practice 
of allocating one-time subsidies to business entities from the local budget for the 
organization of foreign language teaching in rural areas. [3-5 p, 265] 

1. The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) was a gold rush that began on January 
24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, 
 The news of gold brought approximately 300,000 people 
to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.
 The sudden influx of 
gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy; the sudden 
population increase allowed California to go rapidly to statehood in the Compromise 
of 1850. The Gold Rush had severe effects on Native Californians and accelerated 
the Native American population's decline from disease, starvation and the California 
The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. Whole indigenous societies were 
attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called "forty-niners" 
(referring to 1849, the peak year for Gold Rush immigration). Outside of California, 
the first to arrive were from Oregon, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) and Latin 
America in late 1848. Of the approximately 300,000 people who came to California 
during the Gold Rush, about half arrived by sea and half came overland on 
the California Trail and the Gila River trail; forty-niners often faced substantial 
hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the gold 
rush attracted thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia and China. 
Agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the 
settlers. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 
to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches, schools and other towns 
were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written. The new 
constitution was adopted by referendum vote; the future state's interim first governor 
and legislature were chosen. In September 1850, California became a state. 
At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the 
goldfields and a system of "staking claims" was developed. Prospectors retrieved the 
gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. 
Although mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold 
recovery were developed and later adopted around the world. New methods of 

as steamships came 
1869, railroads were built from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, 
technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, 
increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens 
of billions of today's US dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few, 
though many who participated in the California Gold Rush earned little more than 
they had started with. 
Gold was discovered in California as early as March 9, 1842, at Rancho San 
Francisco, in the mountains north of present-day Los Angeles. Californian native 
Francisco Lopez was searching for stray horses and stopped on the bank of a small 
creek (in today's Placerita Canyon), about 3 miles (4.8 km) east of present-
day Newhall, California, and about 35 miles (56 km) northwest of L.A. While the 
horses grazed, Lopez dug up some wild onions and found a small gold nugget in the 
roots among the bulbs. He looked further and found more gold. Lopez took the gold 
to authorities who confirmed its worth. Lopez and others began to search for other 
streambeds with gold deposits in the area. They found several in the northeastern 
section of the forest, within present-day Ventura County In November, some of the 
gold was sent to the U.S. Mint, although otherwise attracted little notice. In 1843, 
Lopez found gold in San Feliciano Canyon near his first discovery. Mexican miners 
from Sonora worked the placer deposits until 1846. Minor finds of gold in California 
were also made by Mission Indians prior to 1848. The friars instructed them to keep 
its location secret to avoid a gold rush. 
In January 1847, nine months into the Mexican–American War, the Treaty of 
Cahuenga was signed, leading to the resolution of the military conflict in Alta 
California (Upper California). On January 24, 1848, James W. Marshall found shiny 
metal in the tailrace of a lumber mill he was building for Sacramento pioneer John 
Sutter—known as Sutter's Mill, near Coloma on the American River. Marshall 
brought what he found to Sutter, and the two privately tested the metal. After the 
tests showed that it was gold, Sutter expressed dismay, wanting to keep the news 

quiet because he feared what would happen to his plans for an agricultural empire if 
there were a gold rush in the region. The Mexican–American War ended on May 30 
with the ratification of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which formally transferred 
California to the United States. 
Having sworn all concerned at the mill to secrecy, in February 1848, Sutter sent 
Charles Bennett to Monterey to meet with Colonel Mason, the chief U.S. official in 
California, to secure the mineral rights of the land where the mill stood. Bennett was 
not to tell anyone of the discovery of gold, but when he stopped at Benicia, he heard 
talk about the discovery of coal near Mount Diablo, and he blurted out the discovery 
of gold. He continued to San Francisco, where again, he could not keep the secret. 
At Monterey, Mason declined to make any judgement of title to lands and mineral 
rights, and Bennett for the third time revealed the gold discovery. 
By March 1848, rumors of the discovery were confirmed by San Francisco 
newspaper publisher and merchant Samuel Brannan. Brannan hurriedly set up a 
store to sell gold prospecting supplies, and he walked through the streets of San 
Francisco, holding aloft a vial of gold, shouting "Gold! Gold! Gold from the 
American River!" 
On August 19, 1848, the New York Herald was the first major newspaper on the East 
Coast to report the discovery of gold. On December 5, 1848, US President James K. 
Polk confirmed the discovery of gold in an address to Congress. As a result, 
individuals seeking to benefit from the gold rush—later called the "forty-niners"—
began moving to the Gold Country of California or "Mother Lode" from other 
countries and from other parts of the United States. As Sutter had feared, his business 
plans were ruined after his workers left in search of gold, and squatters took over his 
land and stole his crops and cattle. 
San Francisco had been a tiny settlement before the rush began. When residents 
learned about the discovery, it at first became a ghost town of abandoned ships and 
businesses, but then boomed as merchants and new people arrived. The population 
of San Francisco increased quickly from about 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 full-time 

residents by 1850. Miners lived in tents, wood shanties, or deck cabins removed 
from abandoned ships. 
In what has been referred to as the "first world-class gold rush," there was no easy 
way to get to California; forty-niners faced hardship and often death on the way. At 
first, most Argonauts, as they were also known, traveled by sea. From the East Coast, 
a sailing voyage around the tip of South America would take four to five months, and 
cover approximately 18,000 nautical miles (21,000 mi; 33,000 km). An alternative 
was to sail to the Atlantic side of the Isthmus of Panama, take canoes and mules for 
a week through the jungle, and then on the Pacific side, wait for a ship sailing for 
San Francisco. There was also a route across Mexico starting at Veracruz. The 
companies providing such transportation created vast wealth among their owners 
and included the U.S. Mail Steamship Company, the federally subsidized Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company, and the Accessory Transit Company. Many gold-seekers 
took the overland route across the continental United States, particularly along 
the California Trail. Each of these routes had its own deadly hazards, from 
shipwreck to typhoid fever and cholera. In the early years of the rush, much of the 
population growth in the San Francisco area was due to steamship travel from New 
York City through overland portages in Nicaragua and Panama and then back up by 
steamship to San Francisco. 
While traveling, many steamships from the eastern seaboard required the passengers 
to bring kits, which were typically full of personal belongings such as clothes, 
guidebooks, tools, etc. In addition to personal belongings, Argonauts were required 
to bring barrels full of beef, biscuits, butter, pork, rice, and salt. While on the 
steamships, travelers could talk to each other, smoke, fish, and other activities 
depending on the ship they traveled. Still, the dominant activity held throughout the 
steamships was gambling, which was ironic because segregation between wealth 
gaps was prominent throughout the ships. Everything was segregated between the 
rich vs. the poor. There were different levels of travel one could pay for to get to 
California. The cheaper steamships tended to have longer routes. In contrast, the 

more expensive would get passengers to California quicker. There were clear social 
and economic distinctions between those who traveled together, being that those 
who spent more money would receive accommodations that others were not 
allowed. They would do this with the clear intent to distinguish their higher class 
power over those that could not afford those accommodations. 
Supply ships arrived in San Francisco with goods to supply the needs of the growing 
population. When hundreds of ships were abandoned after their crews deserted to go 
into the goldfields, many ships were converted to warehouses, stores, taverns, hotels, 
and one into a jail. As the city expanded and new places were needed on which to 
build, many ships were destroyed and used as landfill. 

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