The renaissance analzye the influence of humanism on the visual arts in the italian renaissance


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THIRD FRENCH REPUBLIC

  • President Louis Napoleon (1851) seen as symbol of stability and greatness

  • Favored by the church, army, property-owners and business (conservatives)

  • Falloux Laws returned control of education to the Church

  • Emperor Napoleon III (1852) centralized power with censorship of the press and state controlled elections until 1859

  • Became more liberal after 1859.

  • Infrastructure was improved (Georges von Haussmann)

  • Credit Mobilier funded economic growth



Suez Canal completed

  • Suez Canal completed

  • Allowed trade unions to exist and allowed them to strike

  • Ended censorship and granted amnesty to political prisoners

  • Rescued Pope Pius IX

  • Colonialism was a problem

  • Foreign policy disasters caused these reforms to occur divert attention from his failures

  • Franco-Prussian War led to his collapse



Napoleon III abdicates during the Franco-Prussian War

  • Napoleon III abdicates during the Franco-Prussian War

  • Adolphe Thiers created a new government

  • The Paris Commune was a radical communist group that took over Paris

    • Refused to accept treaty ending Franco-Prussian War
    • Reused to accept the new government because they were acting as royalists (Versailles)
  • National Assembly put down the Paris Commune

  • Third French Republic

  • Jules Ferry established a secular education system for public schools

  • Boulanger Crisis

    • Plot to overthrow the government


Panama Canal Crisis

  • Panama Canal Crisis

    • Ferdinand de Lesseps failure cost France millons
  • Dreyfus Affair

    • Anti-Semitism
    • Captain Dreyfus accused of being a traitor
    • Divided the country
  • Emile Zola

    • J’accuse


GERMAN EMPIRE

  • Humiliation of Olmutz

  • Zollverein

  • Kleindeutsch plan

  • Otto von Bismarck

    • The iron chancellor for Wilhelm I who ran the government
  • Gap Theory

    • Legislature wanted reforms in the military and King disagreed
    • No mention of what to do in case of a stalemate in the constitution
    • Since King created constitution then he can ignore the liberals and make his own decisions


Great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions (1848) but by blood and iron (Bismarck)

  • Great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions (1848) but by blood and iron (Bismarck)

  • Prussian-Danish War

    • Germany and Austria defeated Denmark
    • Joint control of Schleswig and Holstein
  • Austro-Prussian War

  • North German Confederation

    • Reichstag
    • Bypassed Middle Class


Franco-Prussian War

  • Franco-Prussian War

  • Treaty of Frankfurt

    • Alsace and Lorraine given to Germany/Prussia
  • The German Empire (1871-1918)

  • The Reichstag was the bicameral legislature that was divided

    • Conservatives = Junkers
    • Center Party = Catholics
    • Social Democrats = Marxists
  • Bismarck considered the Social Democrats and Catholic Center Party were the greatest threats to the empire



Bismarck developed a universal German legal code

  • Bismarck developed a universal German legal code

  • Kulturkampf

    • Believed that Catholics could not be loyal to both Germany and the Pope
    • Education taken over by the state
    • Veto power over clerical appointments
    • Catholics stayed strong
  • Social Democratic Party

    • Industrial workers
    • Wanted Socialism and Republicanism
    • Universal suffrage
    • Social programs


Bismarck’s reforms

  • Bismarck’s reforms

    • Health insurance (1st)
    • Social Security (1st)
    • Accident insurance
    • Child Labor regulations
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II

    • Fired Bismarck to get support from the workers
    • Did not sign the Re-Insurance treaty with Russia
    • Factory Inspection Act to improve work conditions


ITALIAN UNIFICATION

  • Sardinia-Piedmont led the unification movement under King Victor Emmanuel, Count Cavour and Garibaldi

  • Realpolitik replaced romanticism

  • Prime Minister Count Cavour

    • Editor of Il Risorgimento
    • Created a liberal and economically sound state
    • Reduced the influence of the Church
    • Pope Pius IX issued his Syllabus of Errors warning Catholics of liberalism, rationalism, socialism, and the separation of Church and State




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